From Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology
Qianwang Chen, Zhao Huang,
University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026,
PR of China

11.1 Introduction

Carbon is quite an important element in our lives. Existing abundantly in the earth and the universe, it can be widely used in the future technology. Pure carbon exists in four different crystalline forms: Diamond, Graphite, Fullerenes and Nanotubes. Other common carbon includes amorphous carbon, charcoals, soot and glassy carbon (microcrystalline forms of graphite). Before C 60 was discovered in 1985, Diamond and graphite are the two well-known forms of crystalline carbon. Then, in 1991, Iijima discovered carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Scientists and engineers are interested in this exotic carbon structure and have discovered series of theory and method for the synthesis of CNTs. There are still other special carbon nanostructures, such as nanoballs, nanofibers. Each structure may have its own theory and can be applied in special fields. This chapter provides an overview of current science and technology of carbon nanostructures, with a special focus on the synthesis of CNTs and fullerenes and their applications.

11.2 History of Fullerenes

Harold Kroto, James Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley first discovered the C 60 molecules in 1985. C 60 is a molecule that consists of 60 carbon atoms, arranged as 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. The shape is the same as that of a soccer ball (Fig. 11.1). Based on a theorem of the mathematician Leonhard Euler, one can show that a spherical surface entirely built up from...

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Carbon, Graphite, and Diamond Materials
Carbon, graphite and diamond materials include vitreous, amorphous, or glassy carbon; hexagonal and pyrolytic graphite (PG); and naturally-occurring and synthetic diamonds, diamond-like carbon (DLC) materials, and diamond-like coatings.
Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials have features or particle sizes in the range of 1 to 100 nm.
Carbon Fiber and Carbon Fiber Cloth
Carbon fiber and carbon fiber cloth consist of bulk, chopped fibers, continuous strands or woven cloth forms of carbon or graphite. Carbon and graphite are used in reinforcing composites as well as other specialized electrical and thermal applications.
EDM Electrode Materials
EDM electrodes consist of highly conductive and/or arc erosion-resistant materials such as graphite or copper. EDM is an acronym for electric discharge machining, a process that uses a controlled electrical spark to erode metal.
Cast Irons
Cast irons are a large group of ferrous alloys which contain a large amount of carbon and solidify with a eutectic (chemical carbide which solidifies at a lower temperature).

Topics of Interest

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Carbon is an element which appears in a variety of different forms, which either occur in natur or are created man-made. The most common ones are graphite and diamond, which both can be of natural or...

Carbon is an element which appears in a variety of different forms, which either occur in natur or are created man-made. The most common ones are graphite and diamond, which both can be of natural or...

In 1980 we knew of only three forms of carbon, namely diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon. Today we know there is a whole family of other forms of carbon. The first to be discovered was the...

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