From SilicideTechnology for Integrated Circuits

Y.F. Hsieh, S.L. Cheng and L.J. Chen


This chapter will describe the fundamental principle of the analytical tools of materials characterisation and specially emphasise the joint applications of two or more techniques applied in various studies of silicide formation. It is aimed to illustrate a specific topic from different perspectives, in order to gain an overall picture of the issue, such as macrostructure versus microstructure examination, electrical properties versus physical characteristics, carrier distribution versus impurity involvement, and lattice imaging versus computer simulation.


9.2.1 Introduction

Analytical tools are indispensable in all kinds of research and development activities. Based on the analytical purposes, the tools of materials characterisation can be categorised into three major fields of applications physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses and electrical analyses, as shown in FIGURE 9.1. The most popular techniques are listed as follows [1, 2, 3].

Figure 9.1: Popular tools of materials characterisation, which can be categorised as being for physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses, and electrical analyses. Physical/structural analysis

  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

  • Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy

  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  • Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM)

  • Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM)

  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  • Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)

  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)

  • Reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

  • Stress measurement Chemical/elemental analysis

  • Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of X-ray

  • Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) of X-ray

  • Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

  • Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence...

Products & Services
Chemical Testing Services
Chemical testing services test, analyze, and certify a wide range of chemicals for purity, chemical compatibility, and environmental impact.
Environmental Testing and Analysis Services
Environmental testing and analytical services provide testing of environmental samples such as soil, water, air, and industrial wastes or byproducts.
Scanning Probe Microscopes
Scanning probe microscopes form images of surfaces by using a physical probe that scans the specimen. Examples include AFMs (atomic force microscopes), MFMs (magetic force microscopes), and STMs (scanning tunneling microscopes).
Semiconductor Metrology Instruments
Semiconductor metrology instruments are designed for wafer and thin film in-line inspection after semiconductor processing. They include capacitance gages, C-V systems, electron beam probes, ellipsometers, interferometers, I-V system, magnetometers, optical systems, profilometers, reflectometers, resistance probes, RHEED systems, and X-ray diffractometers.  

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