From SilicideTechnology for Integrated Circuits

Y.F. Hsieh, S.L. Cheng and L.J. Chen


This chapter will describe the fundamental principle of the analytical tools of materials characterisation and specially emphasise the joint applications of two or more techniques applied in various studies of silicide formation. It is aimed to illustrate a specific topic from different perspectives, in order to gain an overall picture of the issue, such as macrostructure versus microstructure examination, electrical properties versus physical characteristics, carrier distribution versus impurity involvement, and lattice imaging versus computer simulation.


9.2.1 Introduction

Analytical tools are indispensable in all kinds of research and development activities. Based on the analytical purposes, the tools of materials characterisation can be categorised into three major fields of applications physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses and electrical analyses, as shown in FIGURE 9.1. The most popular techniques are listed as follows [1, 2, 3].

Figure 9.1: Popular tools of materials characterisation, which can be categorised as being for physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses, and electrical analyses. Physical/structural analysis

  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

  • Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy

  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  • Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM)

  • Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM)

  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  • Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)

  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)

  • Reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

  • Stress measurement Chemical/elemental analysis

  • Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of X-ray

  • Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) of X-ray

  • Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

  • Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence...

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Microscopy and Metallography Sample Preparation Equipment
Microscopy sample preparation equipment and metallography sample preparation equipment is used for the preparation of samples for metallographic or microscopic inspection and analysis.
Wafer and Thin Film Instrumentation
Instruments such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitors, ellipsometers, RHEED systems, imaging stations, CD-SEMs, ion mills, C-V systems specifically designed for wafer metrology or in-situ monitoring of thin film parameters during thin film or semiconductors wafer processing.

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