From SilicideTechnology for Integrated Circuits

Y.F. Hsieh, S.L. Cheng and L.J. Chen

9.1 SCOPE OF THE CHAPTER

This chapter will describe the fundamental principle of the analytical tools of materials characterisation and specially emphasise the joint applications of two or more techniques applied in various studies of silicide formation. It is aimed to illustrate a specific topic from different perspectives, in order to gain an overall picture of the issue, such as macrostructure versus microstructure examination, electrical properties versus physical characteristics, carrier distribution versus impurity involvement, and lattice imaging versus computer simulation.

9.2 TOOLS OF MATERIALS CHARACTERISATION

9.2.1 Introduction

Analytical tools are indispensable in all kinds of research and development activities. Based on the analytical purposes, the tools of materials characterisation can be categorised into three major fields of applications physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses and electrical analyses, as shown in FIGURE 9.1. The most popular techniques are listed as follows [1, 2, 3].


Figure 9.1: Popular tools of materials characterisation, which can be categorised as being for physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses, and electrical analyses.

9.2.1.1 Physical/structural analysis

  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

  • Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy

  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  • Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM)

  • Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM)

  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  • Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)

  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)

  • Reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

  • Stress measurement

9.2.1.2 Chemical/elemental analysis

  • Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of X-ray

  • Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) of X-ray

  • Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

  • Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence...

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