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##### From Digital Principles & Logic Design

As we have discussed, digital circuits use binary signals but are required to handle data which may be alphabetic, numeric, or special characters. Hence the signals that are available in some other form other than binary have to be converted into suitable binary form before they can be processed further by digital circuits. This means that in whatever format the information may be available it must be converted into binary format. To achieve this, a process of coding is required where each letter, special character, or numeral is coded in a unique combination of 0s and 1s using a coding scheme known as code.

In digital systems a variety of codes are used to serve different purposes, such as data entry, arithmetic operation, error detection and correction, etc. Selection of a particular code depends on the requirement. Even in a single digital system a number of different codes may be used for different operations and it may even be necessary to convert data from one type of code to another. For conversion of data, code converter circuits are required, which will be discussed in due time.

Codes can be broadly classified into five groups, viz. (i) Weighted Binary Codes, (ii) Nonweighted Codes, (iii) Error-detection Codes, (iv) Error-correcting Codes, and (v) Alphanumeric Codes.

##### Products & Services
Digital Multimeters
Digital multimeters (or multi-meters) are used to measure electrical quantities such as voltage, current, resistance, frequency, temperature, capacitance, and time period measurements.
Microcontrollers (MCU)
Microcontrollers (MCU) are complete computer systems on a chip. They combine an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), memory, timer/counters, serial port, input/output (I/O) ports and a clock oscillator.
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)
Programmable logic devices (PLD) are designed with configurable logic and flip-flops linked together with programmable interconnect. PLDs provide specific functions, including device-to-device interfacing, data communication, signal processing, data display, timing and control operations, and almost every other function a system must perform.
Simple Programmable Logic Devices (SPLD)
Programmable logic devices (PLD) are digital devices with configurable logic and flip-flops linked together with programmable interconnect.
Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD)
Complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) are integrated circuits (ICs) or chips that application designers configure to implement digital hardware such as mobile phones. CPLDs can handle significantly larger designs than simple programmable logic devices (SPLDs), but provide less logic than field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

##### Topics of Interest

Binary logic deals with variables that have two discrete values 1 for TRUE and 0 for FALSE. A simple switching circuit containing active elements such as a diode and transistor can demonstrate the...

References [1] Novak, I., et al, "Distributed Matched Bypassing for Board-Level Power Distribution Networks," IEEE Trans. on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 2002, pp. 230 243.

References [1] Augusti G., Baratta A., Casciati F. ( 1984), Probabilistic Methods in Structural Engineering, Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, New York [2] Bolotin V.V. (...

Paul Werbaneth, Tegal; and Tim Lester and Jadwiga Pakulska, Nortel Networks A variety of metals can be used for interconnect metallization in IC and MEMS device fabrication. Aluminum and aluminum...

3.3 Unloaded Q The ideal inductor and capacitor exhibit the above terminal circuit behavior and have no dissipated energy. With ideal elements, filter design would be pure mathematics and far...

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