From Electric Motors and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications, Third Edition


Before variable-voltage supplies became readily available, most d.c. motors were obliged to operate from a single d.c. supply, usually of constant voltage. The armature and field circuits were therefore designed either for connection in parallel (shunt), or in series. As we will see shortly, the operating characteristics of shunt and series machines differ widely, and hence each type tends to claim its particular niche: shunt motors were judged to be good for constant-speed applications, while series motors were (and still are) widely used for traction applications.

In a way it is unfortunate that these historical patterns of association have become so deep-rooted. The fact is that a converter-fed separately excited motor, free of any constraint between field and armature, can do everything that a shunt or series motor can, and more; and it is doubtful if shunt and series motors would ever have become widespread if variable-voltage supplies had always been around. Both shunt and series motors are handicapped in comparison with the separately excited motor, and we will therefore be well advised to view their oft-proclaimed merits with this in mind.

The operating characteristics of shunt, series and compound (a mixture of both) motors are explored below, but first we should say something of the physical differences. At a fundamental level these amount to very little, but in the detail of the winding arrangement, they are considerable.

Plate 3.2: Totally-enclosed fan-ventilated wound-field d.c. motors. The smaller motor is rated at 500 W (0.67 h.p.)...
Copyright Austin Hughes 2006 under license agreement with Books24x7

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Brushless Motors
Brushless motors are synchronous electric motors that have a magnetically (AC induction) or electronically (DC) controlled commutation system instead of a brush-based mechanical commutation system.
DC Motors
DC motors are most commonly used in variable speed and torque applications. They include brushless and gear motors, as well as servomotors.
Motor Coils
Motor coils are used with motors, generators, stators, and armatures.
Motor Controllers
Motor controllers receive supply voltages and provide signals to motor drives that are interfaced to motors. They include a power supply, amplifier, user interface, and position control circuitry.
AC Motors
AC motors include single, multiphase, universal, induction, synchronous, and gear motors. They also include servomotors.  

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