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## 5.2 IMPEDANCE SIMULATORS

Thanks to their particular characteristics, CCIIs can be widely used in the implementation of circuits able to convert impedances. Negative impedances converters in general, and FDNR (Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance) in particular, are usually implemented by CCIIs instead of op-amps because of their better performance.

### 5.2.1 Impedance Converters

In figure 5.15 a simple CCII-based negative impedance converter has been reported [2].

Figure 5.15: Current controlled negative impedance converter

Using a positive CCII, the current injected at X node will flow into Z impedance, so imposing a negative voltage at Y node. This value is also present at X node, where the equivalent impedance is equal to ?Z, as shown in eq. (5.14).

If we consider, as a source, a voltage generator instead of a current generator, the solution presented in figure 5.16 can be employed, where the equivalent impedance at Y node is now considered.

Figure 5.16: Voltage controlled negative impedance converter

The operating principle is exactly the same and the resulting input impedance at input node Y is still equal to ?Z.

The two solutions proposed in figure 5.15 and 5.16 allow the simulation of a grounded negative impedance. In order to implement a floating negative impedance, it is necessary to introduce a second CCII. A possible implementation is reported in figure 5.17. We notice that this topology has been obtained simply doubling that shown in figure 5.16, so the resulting input impedance is still equal to ?Z.

Using CCIIs, it is...

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Impedance Matching Networks
Impedance matching networks are electrical circuits which, when connected between two networks, match the output impedance of the source (the first network) to the input impedance of the load (the receiving or second network). The purpose of matching these two impedances is to minimize wave reflection and/or to maximize the transfer of power between the system and the load.
LCR Meters
LCR meters and impedance meters measures inductance (L), capacitance (C), and resistance or impedance (R).
Frequency-to-Voltage Converter Chips
Frequency-to-voltage converter chips provide an analog voltage output as a function of the input signal frequency.
DC-AC Inverter Chips
DC to AC converter chips transfer a DC input into AC power by using switching, inversion, or other technology.
Amplifier and Comparator Chips
Amplifier and comparator chips are board-level components for amplifying voltage, current, or power.

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