From Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation

1.1 Introduction

The operation of an electrical power system involves continuous electromechanical and electromagnetic distribution of energy among the system components. During normal operation, under constant load and topology, these energy exchanges are not modelled explicitly and the system behaviour can be represented by voltage and current phasors in the frequency domain.

However, following switching events and system disturbances the energy exchanges subject the circuit components to higher stresses, resulting from excessive currents or voltage variations, the prediction of which is the main objective of power system transient simulation.

Figure 1.1 shows typical time frames for a full range of power system transients. The transients on the left of the figure involve predominantly interactions between the magnetic fields of inductances and the electric fields of capacitances in the system; they are referred to as electromagnetic transients. The transients on the right of the figure are mainly affected by interactions between the mechanical energy stored in the rotating machines and the electrical energy stored in the network; they are accordingly referred to as electromechanical transients. There is a grey area in the middle, namely the transient stability region, where both effects play a part and may need adequate representation.

Figure 1.1: Time frame of various transient phenomena

In general the lightning stroke produces the highest voltage surges and thus determines the insulation levels. However at operating voltages of 400 kV and above, system generated overvoltages, such as those caused by the energisation of transmission lines, can often be the...

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Transient Voltage Suppressor Diodes (TVS)
Transient voltage suppressor (TVS) diodes are designed to limit over-voltages. They can dissipate high amounts of transient power in a short period of time.
Circuit Protection Components
Circuit protection devices are used to protect electronic components from unwanted transients such as current and voltage surges, electrostatic discharge (ESD), lightning, spikes and other signals that can imperil the operation or damage the component.
Surge Protective Devices (SPDs)
Surge protective devices (SPDs) are designed to protect equipment against temporary excess voltage and/or current.
EMC Testers
EMC Testers are devices used to test or monitor parts and products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

Topics of Interest

2.1 Introduction Linear algebra and circuit theory concepts are used in this chapter to describe the formulation of the state equations of linear dynamic systems. The Laplace transform, commonly used...

This Note is an overview of the sources and nature of various transient overvoltages, and the problems that may result. Transients in electrical circuits result from the sudden release of previously...

p>An electrical transient is a temporary excess of voltage and/or current in an electrical circuit which has been disturbed. Transients are short duration events, typically lasting from a few...

The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these...

Some aspects of transient voltages have been mentioned previously, but a more detailed examination will be made in this chapter. The long-term health of a power electronics system often hinges on its...

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