From Practical Hydraulic Systems: Operation and Troubleshooting for Engineers and Technicians
7.3 The reservoir system
The reservoir as the name suggests, is a tank which provides uninterrupted supply of fluid to the system, by storing the required quantity of fluid. The hydraulic fluid is considered the most important component in a hydraulic system or in other words its very heart. Since the reservoir holds the hydraulic fluid, its design is considered quite critical. The reservoir in addition to storing the hydraulic fluid, performs various other important functions such as dissipating heat through its walls, conditioning of the fluid by helping settle the contaminants, aiding in the escape of air and providing mounting support for the pump and various other components. These are discussed in detail below. Some of the essential features of any good reservoir include components such as:
Baffle plate for preventing the return fluid from entering the pump inlet
Inspection cover for maintenance access
Filter breather for air exchange
Protected filler opening
Level indicator for monitoring the fluid level
Connections for suction, discharge and drain lines.
The proper design of a suitable reservoir for a hydraulic system is essential to the overall performance and life of the individual components. It also becomes the principle location where the fluid can be conditioned in order to enhance its suitability. Sludge, water and foreign matter such as metal chips have a tendency to settle in the stored fluid while the entrained air picked up by the oil is allowed to escape in the reservoir. This makes the construction and design of hydraulic...
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