From Chemical Thermodynamics for Industry
Deresh Ramjugernath, Raj Sharma

1 Introduction

Crude petroleum has been explored, extracted and processed for thousands of years. [1] The modern petroleum industry as we know it, however, is just over a hundred years old. The processing of crude oil into various products, by-products, charge-stocks for petroleum-based finished products and petrochemicals has been determined by the ever-changing demand of the product slate and new products or processes. Historically, the petroleum industry is, perhaps, the single industry having had the greatest impact on the development of Chemical Engineering as a discipline. It is definitely a case where technology has preceded engineering science!

The use and application of thermodynamics of petroleum fluids encompasses all facets of the petroleum industry, ranging from production and refining of crude oil to processing of petrochemicals. This chapter is limited to a review of the most widely used thermodynamic methods in the petroleum refining industry, together with a discussion on a few recent developments. The chapter provides a single source of easily accessible relevant information.

Perhaps the most important thermophysical properties required in petroleum refining for rating as well as process and equipment design are enthalpy and vapor liquid equilibria (fugacities). Enthalpies and fugacities often provide sufficient information to calculate mass and energy balances across most unit operations in a refinery. Since crude oil is an undefined, wide-boiling mixture of many different types of hydrocarbons ranging in carbon numbers extending to 70 or beyond, conventional thermodynamic methods used for property prediction of pure components or well-defined mixtures...

Products & Services
Energy Production and Exploration Services
Energy production and exploration services specialize in electrical power generation, oil and gas exploration and extraction, fuel refining, and other utility-related services.
Petroleum and Mineral Oil Products
Petroleum products and mineral oil products include substances such as fluids and greases.
Refining and Recovery Services
Refining and recovery services include the purification and treatment of oils, fuels, metals and other materials.
Refining and Recovery Equipment
Refining and recovery equipment include systems for the purification and treatment of metals, precious alloys, oils, fuels, and other valuable constituents from waste streams or raw materials.
Fuels and Fuel Products
Fuels and fuel products include gasoline, diesel oil, natural gas, propane, coal, fossil fuels, biofuels and other combustible fluids or materials.

Topics of Interest

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The U.S. refineries represent approximately 23 percent of the world's petroleum production, and the United States has the largest refining capacity in the world. Petroleum refining is an industry,...

The oil and gas industry is very diverse. Within the overall industry there are several smaller sub-industries, each with different needs. The term "oil and gas industry" refers to a wide variety of...

OVERVIEW One of the most important engineering problems encountered in modeling chemical and petroleum processes is the multiphase flash problem. The present flash algorithm can be used to calculate...