From Civil Engineering Formulas


When working with reinforced concrete and when designing reinforced concrete structures, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, latest edition, is widely used. Future references to this document are denoted as the ACI Code. Likewise, publications of the Portland Cement Association (PCA) find extensive use in design and construction of reinforced concrete structures.

Formulas in this chapter cover the general principles of reinforced concrete and its use in various structural applications. Where code requirements have to be met, the reader must refer to the current edition of the ACI Code previously mentioned. Likewise, the PCA publications should also be referred to for the latest requirements and recommendations.

Products & Services
Concrete Blocks and Cement Blocks
Concrete blocks and cement blocks are preformed, manufactured concrete structures that are ready for on-site installation. They are manufactured, cast, and cured in factories or other production facilities.
Retaining Walls
Retaining walls are used to retain earth, prevent erosion, and create level surfaces in sloping areas.
Precast Concrete Products
Precast concrete products are prefabricated shapes manufactured from cast and cured cement and aggregate mixtures.
Specialty Cement, Concrete, and Mortar
Specialty cement, concrete and mortar contain specialized binders such as K silicate, calcium aluminate, sulfur, and oxysulfate or polymer resins. They cure or set through film drying (air setting), chemical reactions, thermoset bonds, hydraulic bonds, hot melting, and multiple component binder systems.
Polymer Concrete and Mortar
Polymer concrete and mortar are binders, compounds, and aggregate mixtures that use epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester or other polymer resin bonds. They cure or set through chemical reactions, thermoset bonds, and multiple component binder systems.

Topics of Interest

WATER/CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS RATIO The water/cementitious (w/c) ratio is used in both tensile and compressive strength analyses of Portland concrete cement. This ratio is found from where w m =...

REFERENCES American Concrete Institute. Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-99). Detroit, MI, 2000. Williams, A. Structural Engineering License Review:...

REFERENCES American Concrete Institute. Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-99). Detroit, MI, 2000. American Institute of Steel Construction. Manual of Steel...

6.9 CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CONCRETE by William L. Gamble Neville, "Properties of Concrete," Wiley. Sahlin, "Structural Masonry," Prentice-Hall. Mindless and Young, "Concrete," Prentice-Hall. "BOCA Basic...

Section 3: CONCRETE P. BALAGURU Concrete is one of the basic construction materials; it finds a place in almost all structures. Even in such structures as steel bridges, the deck is quite often made...

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