BOOK_CONTENT
From CMOS Current-Mode Circuits for Data Communications

Overview

Electro-static discharge (ESD) is one of the most important reliability problems in IC industry. ESD is a transient discharge of the static charge accumulated on a human body, a test device, or a chip through a low-impedance path due to either human handling or a machine contact. ESD damage to a chip include gate oxide breakdown caused by an excessive gate voltage and interconnect burn-out, such as contact spiking, silicide spiking, and metal migration due to excessive heat generated by a transient current in a localized volume of the chip [233, 234]. The aggressive down-scaling of the physical dimension of MOS devices and the rapid increase in the doping of modern CMOS technology have resulted in a significant reduction in both the thickness of the gate oxide and the width of the pn-junctions of MOS devices. The amount of energy needed to damage MOS devices is scaled down with technology. The level of ESD stress generated due to either human handling or device contacting, however, remains unchanged. Modern CMOS circuits are much more vulnerable to ESD stress.

To protect circuits from ESD-induced damage, ESD protection devices must provide a low-impedance path that bypasses the circuits under protection in an ESD event and discharges the static charge to the ground before it damages the protected circuits. These devices must be sufficiently large in size in order to withstand ESD stress and yet fast enough to release ESD stress before it damages the protected circuits. The large size of ESD protection...

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Products & Services
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Suppressors
ESD suppressors are semiconductors that protect electronic components and systems from electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Generators
Electrostatic discharge generators are machines used to generate electrostatic discharge (ESD) signals to test how much ESD a piece of electronic equipment can tolerate without damage.
Logic Gates
Logic gates are electronic circuits that combine digital signals according to boolean algebra.
Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT)
Gas discharge tubes (GDT) or gas tube arrestors (GTA) provide protection against voltage and current surges in electronic and electrical equipment. They include spark gaps, simple devices with two or three conducting electrodes separated by a gap filled with a gas such as air.
Circuit Protection Devices
Circuit protection devices are used to protect electronic components from unwanted transients such as current and voltage surges, electrostatic discharge (ESD), lightning, spikes and other signals that can imperil the operation or damage the component.

Topics of Interest

As next-generation transceivers and digital communications ICs scale to smaller geometries, the challenge for IC manufacturers to maintain reasonable levels of on-chip ESD protection becomes greater.

AN595 Improving the Susceptibility of an Application to ESD-Induced Latch-up This short circuit will tend to reduce the voltage level on Author: David Wilkie the application (particularly if the...

Electronic systems are sensitive to both external and internal sources of overvoltage transients. This can be in the form of external Electro- Static Discharge (ESD) or internally generated Electrical...

Testing for Immunity against ESD     Two ESD testing techniques are used to check medical devices. The first is air discharge; the second is contact discharge. Testing by air discharge...

known in semiconductor manufacturing and other high-technology industries. Electrostatic attraction (ESA) increases the deposition of particles onto product surfaces and causes product breakage...

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