From Construction Databook
Although surface preparation is the key to the proper application of any paint, a wide range of commercially produced products are available for every functional and aesthetic purpose.
16.0.0 Generic Paint Formulations
The first water-based coating contained styrene or styrene butadiene and was known as latex paint. These paints were for interior use only, but over the years, acrylic or acrylic ester resins were developed for exterior use. Other water-based paints are alkyds, vinyl or polyvinyl acetates and cement-based coatings.
Acrylic coatings are available as either opaque (colored) or clear. Methyl methacrylate is often used as a clear coating for concrete to provide weathering protection.
Water-based coatings have higher permeability to water vapor, making them suitable for application over moist, porous surfaces, such as wood, concrete, and masonry.
These coatings can be purchased as either clear or opaque materials. Clear solvent-based coatings use drying oils mixed with a resin and are generally referred to as varnishes. Various clear coatings will contain either:
Phenolics Present good water and weathering characteristics. When mixed with tung oil, these varnishes are most durable for marine use. However, the relative dark color tends to darken with age and might preclude its use in some areas.
Shellacs Shellac is a resin dissolved in spirit varnish, a volatile solvent. This coating is more often used as a sealer under a more-durable top coat.
Lacquers Cellulose derivations in volatile spirits. They have some application in interior use, particularly for aesthetic...
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