From Facility Piping Systems Handbook, Second Edition

Cryogenic gas, as used in this handbook, is defined as any gas in a liquid state at or below ?20 F. This chapter describes the bulk storage of cryogenic liquids used for laboratory and light industrial purposes and the piping of cryogenic liquids from storage tanks. There are two applications of cryogenic storage. The first is for a facility that uses a large volume of gas and needs storage on site for practical and economical reasons. The second is for cold liquids required for research, cooling, and other purposes.

Cryogenic storage systems for gases in health care facilities and distribution of gases created from cryogenic storage are discussed in Chap. 14, Compressed Gas Systems.


The major components of a cryogenic storage system include the bulk storage tank containing gas in liquid form, a vaporizer (if a gas is desired), and the piping network conveying either gas or liquid to the point of use. The vaporizer is directly connected to the storage tank and is used to convert the liquid gas into its gaseous state (see Fig. 8.1).

FIGURE 8.1: Ambient air vaporizers.


The following are codes used for the design and fabrication of cryogenic systems:

  1. Underwriters Laboratories, UL-644

  2. ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels

  3. NFPA 50, 50A, and SOB

  4. NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities (often used as a standard for laboratory piping)

  5. ASTM G-88

  6. ASME/ASTM B3 1.3 Code for Pressure Piping


Gas is often stored as a cryogenic liquid when the...

Products & Services
Vaporizers are heat exchangers that convert liquefied gases to a warm gaseous product. The heat source can be ambient air, steam or water.
Cryogenic Equipment
Cryogenic equipment produces or is used in the production of very low temperature materials or processes.
Chemical Process and Petrochemical Gases

Chemical process and petrochemical gases are materials used in the production of compounds or products. They are used in processes such as inerting, blanketing, purging, sparging, and stripping. These gases are used in many applications including treatment and sterilization, medicine, energy solutions, and manufacturing.

Industrial Gases
Industrial gases are pure elements, molecular compounds or mixtures that are gaseous or vaporous at room temperature and pressure.
Gas Cylinders
Gas cylinders are used to store gases under high pressures. They can store flammable gases such as acetylene and inert gases such as helium.

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