From Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives, Second Edition


Grinding processes are often selected for final finishing of components because of their ability to satisfy stringent requirements of surface roughness and tolerance. Surface roughness and tolerance are closely interrelated, as it is generally necessary to specify a smoother finish in order to maintain a finer tolerance in production. For many practical design applications, it is the tolerance requirement which imposes a limit on the maximum allowable roughness, although the proper operation of many devices also necessitates smooth surfaces.

The reliability of mechanical components, especially for high strength applications, is often critically dependent upon the quality of the surface produced by machining. Surface quality may be considered to consist of two aspects: surface integrity and surface topography [1]. Surface integrity is associated with mechanical and metallurgical alterations to the surface layer induced by machining. For grinding, the most important aspects of surface integrity are associated with thermal damage caused by excessive grinding temperatures, as we saw in Chapter 6. Surface topography refers to the geometry of machined surfaces, which is usually characterized by surface roughness, although there are other parameters which may also be of interest.

The present chapter is mainly concerned with surface roughness in grinding. We begin by observing the distinctive morphological features of ground surfaces. Quantitative characterization of surface topography is then briefly reviewed, and the possible basis for a direct interrelationship between roughness and tolerance is assessed. Various models are then considered for describing the generation of the 'ideal' ground surface topography to theoretically...

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Products & Services
Surface Metrology Equipment
Surface metrology equipment is used to measure the surface finish and/or geometry of engineering components. Surface texture and topology characteristics include surface roughness, contour, form, waviness, and defects.
Surface Profilometers
Surface profilometers are contact or non-contact instruments used to measures surface profiles, roughness, waviness and other finish parameters.
Honing, Lapping, and Super-finishing Machines
Honing, lapping and super-finishing equipment are used to improve surface finish or geometry to tight tolerances.
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) Slurries

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries consist of surface active chemicals and microabrasive  grains in a liquid dispersion.

Surface Preparation Services
Surface preparation services clean, strengthen and prepare surfaces for additional processing and/or refine or roughen surfaces to meet finishing requirements.

Topics of Interest

11.1 INTRODUCTION Grinding of materials is accompanied to a greater or lesser degree by wear of the grinding wheel. Historically, wheel performance has been judged mainly in terms of its wear...

Chapter 1 With respect to surface integrity, describe the meaning of the following terms: abusive machining, gentle machining, low stress grinding, maximized machining, conventional machining...

8.3 Surface Properties of Ceramics The surface properties of interest, surface roughness and camber, are highly dependent on the particle size and method of processing. Surface roughness is a measure...

2.1 Visualization The biggest problem with surfaces is that the machining marks are very small. Until the late 1920s, no attempt was made to measure the surfaces. They were examined by eye or by...

Emerging engineered-surface treatments work at the micron scale to boost load capacity of bearings, gears, and other components. Tests on helical gears (case carburized + ground) in...