From HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fourth Edition

10.1 Introduction

Heating is the first word in the acronym HVAC. It is the most important part because without heating mankind would have difficulty in surviving. Proper design of the heating system is even more critical than that of ventilation or cooling. Human history began to develop with the discovery and control of fire which increased people s ability to survive in a harsh environment. In modern heating system design, two primary concerns are proper system sizing, to achieve comfort, and system reliability. Capital cost, operating cost, and pollution control are secondary in consideration. Pollution control is addressed by code authorities. Energy conservation and operating costs go together and have a considerable effect on life-cycle costs.

These concerns and many others are addressed in this chapter.

10.2 General

In a modern heating system, heating can be provided by

  1. Fuel-fired or electric boilers that produce steam, hot water, or thermal liquids for direct or indirect use

  2. Furnaces, unit heaters, duct heaters, and outside-air heaters which provide hot air for direct circulation to the conditioned space

  3. Waste heat furnaces and boilers which utilize the waste energy from some other source, such as a process, an incinerator, or refrigeration equipment

    Solar energy collectors, both passive and active, which heat either water or air and, in some cases, solid materials

    Heat pumps, either liquid or air

    Direct-fired radiant heaters, either electric or natural gas

    Geothermal sources

End users are provided heat by

  1. Direct air furnaces, duct...

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2003 under license agreement with Books24x7

Products & Services
Boilers (industrial)
Industrial boilers are closed vessels that use a fuel source or electricity to heat water or generate steam for industrial heating and humidification applications.
Inline Heaters
Inline heaters instantly heat fluids that are passed through the device. Upon exiting the heater, the fluids are consumed for their intended use and are not re-circulated.
Air Heaters
Air heaters are devices used to heat air.  They include forced air products as well as all types of radiant and space heaters.
Economizers
Economizers are mechanical devices that are designed to reduce energy consumption, or to perform other useful, energy-related functions (such as preheating fluids).
Industrial Heaters
This is a general search form for all types of industrial heaters, devices which are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and heating configurations.

Topics of Interest

11.1 Introduction By definition, air conditioning involves control of the air temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution. It follows that an air-handling unit (AHU) of some kind is an...

Direct-use geothermal applications tap hot underground water and distribute the heat through pipes or some other means for various uses. The term â direct-useâ refers to the fact that no...

Problem: In early 1988 the City of Aurora, CO had decided to install energy saving gas-fired infra-red tube heaters. In years past, the City had been pleased with the results of using high intensity...

HEAT GENERATORS (HEATING PLANTS) Considerable improvements in the seasonal efficiency of conventional heating plant equipment, such as boilers and furnaces, were made over the last several decades.

At the time this article was written, Robert B. Stotz, P.E., was a consulting engineer and president of R.B. Stotz Professional Engineers, Inc., Panama City, FL. Robert L. Hanson was an engineering...