BOOK_CONTENT
From Introduction to GPS: The Global Positioning System

10.9 GPS for airborne mapping

GPS alone has been successfully used for topographic mapping of smallsize areas. Using either conventional GPS kinematic surveying or GPS RTK, a user takes positions of the points on the ground where the topography changes, which can be used at a later time to produce the topographic map of that area. Even in rough areas, GPS can be mounted on all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) to precisely map those areas. However, there exist situations in which the use of GPS alone becomes time-consuming and/or cost-ineffective [14]. Examples include mapping large areas, coastal areas, forests, and inaccessible areas.

Traditionally, mapping large and inaccessible areas was done using classical airborne photogrammetry. With this method, an aircraftmounted camera is used to capture a sequence of images for the area to be mapped, which after processing construct the map. To be of practical use, the captured images must first be related to the geodetic reference system (e.g., WGS 84), a process known as georeferencing the images. In classical airborne photogrammetry, the georeferencing is done indirectly with the help of a number of ground control stations with known geodetic coordinates and their corresponding image coordinates. In recent years, GPS has been used onboard the aircraft to provide the precise position of the aerial camera as well as the precise time of each aerial exposure (Figure 10.9) [15].


Figure 10.9: GPS for airborne mapping.

The use of GPS in airborne photogrammetry has significantly reduced the required number of ground control points. It has...

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Products & Services
GPS Software
GPS software is used to program, manage, and monitor GPS receivers, radio-navigational devices that provide positional information for objects on Earth based on data transmitted by orbiting satellites.
Navigational Instruments
Navigational instruments include products such as distance meters, range finders and mapping systems.
Mapping and Surveying Services
Mapping and surveying services perform all of the activities that involve the physical measurement of land areas, including field surveying and data collection operations as well as the creation of maps using existing or acquired data.
Total Stations, Theodolites, and Transits
Theodolites and Transits are used for the accurate measurement of features, orientation and absolute positioning of large scale objects in engineering, construction, mapping, industry, defense and other applications.
GPS Chips and Modules
GPS chips and modules compare signals from several geo-positioning satellites to determine position on the Earth's surface. GPS is an acronym for global positioning system.

Topics of Interest

10.10 GPS for seafloor mapping Safe and efficient marine navigation requires, among other factors, accurate information about the water depth and the sea bottom [18]. In addition, the availability of...

10.9 GPS for Airborne Mapping GPS alone has been successfully used for topographic mapping of small-size areas. Using either conventional GPS kinematic surveying or GPS RTK, a user takes positions of...

2.4 DIRECT GEOREFERENCING: MATHEMATICAL MODELING The formulation of the direct georeferencing mathematical model is rather straightforward. For details, see, for instance, Schwarz (2000). The...

The ability of GPS to determine the precise location of a user anywhere, under any weather conditions, attracted millions of users worldwide from various fields and backgrounds. With advances in GPS...

The ability of GPS to determine the precise location of a user anywhere, under any weather conditions, attracted millions of users worldwide from various fields and backgrounds. With advances in GPS...