BOOK_CONTENT
From Handbook of Batteries
Chapter 7: PRIMARY BATTERIES INTRODUCTION
Chapter 8: ZINC-CARBON BAT TERIES (Leclanch and Zinc Chloride Cell Systems)
Chapter 9: MAGNESIUM AND ALUMINUM BATTERIES
Chapter 10: ALKALINE-MANGANESE DIOXIDE BATTERIES
Chapter 11: MERCURIC OXIDE BATTERIES
Chapter 12: SILVER OXIDE BATTERIES
Chapter 13: ZINC/AIR BATTERIES BUTTON CONFIGURATION
Chapter 14: LITHIUM BATTERIES
Chapter 15: SOLID-ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES

David Linden

7.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS OF PRIMARY BATTERIES

The primary battery is a convenient source of power for portable electric and electronic devices, lighting, photographic equipment, PDA s (Personal Digital Assistant), communication equipment, hearing aids, watches, toys, memory backup, and a wide variety of other applications, providing freedom from utility power. Major advantages of the primary battery are that it is convenient, simple, and easy to use, requires little, if any, maintenance, and can be sized and shaped to fit the application. Other general advantages are good shelf life, reasonable energy and power density, reliability, and acceptable cost.

Primary batteries have existed for over 100 years, but up to 1940, the zinc-carbon battery was the only one in wide use. During World War II and the postwar period, significant advances were made, not only with the zinc-carbon system, but with new and superior types of batteries. Capacity was improved from less than 50 Wh/kg with the early zinc-carbon batteries to more than 400 Wh/kg now obtained with lithium batteries. The shelf life of batteries at the time of World War II was limited to about 1 year when stored at moderate temperatures; the shelf life of present-day conventional batteries is...

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Reserve Batteries
Reserve batteries are designed to retain their charge during long storage periods. The electrolyte is kept separate from the rest of battery to avoid self-discharge.
Batteries
Industrial batteries translate chemical energy into electricity.
Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries
Rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries contain active materials that can be regenerated by charging. When the energy produced by rechargeable batteries drops below optimum efficiency, secondary batteries may be recharged in a couple of ways, depending upon their construction. 
Lithium Batteries
Lithium batteries have a lithium anode. They are available as both primary batteries and secondary batteries.

Topics of Interest

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Ross Dueber of Zinc Matrix Power (ZMP) presented an update on their rechargeable silver-zinc technology as a replacement for lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic devices. Because of their...

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