From Handbook of Batteries
- Chapter 7: PRIMARY BATTERIES INTRODUCTION
- Chapter 8: ZINC-CARBON BAT TERIES (Leclanch and Zinc Chloride Cell Systems)
- Chapter 9: MAGNESIUM AND ALUMINUM BATTERIES
- Chapter 10: ALKALINE-MANGANESE DIOXIDE BATTERIES
- Chapter 11: MERCURIC OXIDE BATTERIES
- Chapter 12: SILVER OXIDE BATTERIES
- Chapter 13: ZINC/AIR BATTERIES BUTTON CONFIGURATION
- Chapter 14: LITHIUM BATTERIES
- Chapter 15: SOLID-ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES
7.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS OF PRIMARY BATTERIES
The primary battery is a convenient source of power for portable electric and electronic devices, lighting, photographic equipment, PDA s (Personal Digital Assistant), communication equipment, hearing aids, watches, toys, memory backup, and a wide variety of other applications, providing freedom from utility power. Major advantages of the primary battery are that it is convenient, simple, and easy to use, requires little, if any, maintenance, and can be sized and shaped to fit the application. Other general advantages are good shelf life, reasonable energy and power density, reliability, and acceptable cost.
Primary batteries have existed for over 100 years, but up to 1940, the zinc-carbon battery was the only one in wide use. During World War II and the postwar period, significant advances were made, not only with the zinc-carbon system, but with new and superior types of batteries. Capacity was improved from less than 50 Wh/kg with the early zinc-carbon batteries to more than 400 Wh/kg now obtained with lithium batteries. The shelf life of batteries at the time of World War II was limited to about 1 year when stored at moderate temperatures; the shelf life of present-day conventional batteries is...
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