From Handbook of Batteries
Chapter 37: ADVANCED BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION
Chapter 38: METAL/AIR BATTERIES
Chapter 39: ZINC/BROMINE BATTERIES
Chapter 40: SODIUM-BETA BATTERIES
Chapter 41: LITHIUM/IRON SULFIDE BATTERIES

Philip C. Symonsand Paul C. Butler [a]

37.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

The types and number of applications requiring improved or advanced rechargeable batteries are constantly expanding. The new and evolving applications include electric and electric hybrid vehicles, electric utility energy storage, portable electronics, and storage of electric energy produced by renewable energy resources such as solar or wind generators. In addition, the performance, life and cost requirements for the batteries used in many of these new and existing applications are becoming increasingly more rigorous. Commercially available batteries may not be able to meet these performance requirements. Thus, a need exists for both conventional battery technology with improved performance and advanced battery technologies with characteristics such as high energy and power densities, long life, low cost, little or no maintenance, and a high degree of safety.

Battery performance requirements are application dependent. For example, electric vehicle batteries need:(1) high specific energy and energy density to provide adequate vehicle driving range; (2) high power density to provide acceleration; (3) long cycle life with little maintenance; and (4) low cost. On the other hand, batteries for hybrid electric vehicles require:(1) very high specific power and power density to provide acceleration; (2) capability of accepting high power repetitive charges from regenerative braking; (3) very long cycle life with no maintenance under shallow cycling conditions;

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2002 under license agreement with Books24x7

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Batteries
Industrial batteries translate chemical energy into electricity.
Lithium Batteries
Lithium batteries have a lithium anode. They are available as both primary batteries and secondary batteries.
Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries
Rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries contain active materials that can be regenerated by charging. When the energy produced by rechargeable batteries drops below optimum efficiency, secondary batteries may be recharged in a couple of ways, depending upon their construction. 
Reserve Batteries
Reserve batteries are designed to retain their charge during long storage periods. The electrolyte is kept separate from the rest of battery to avoid self-discharge.

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