From Machinery's Handbook Pocket Companion

MATERIALS

Table 1: Standard Steel Classification

Main Group

Content

Comments

Carbon Steels

When maximum content of the main elements do not exceed the following:

  • Mn ? 1.65%

  • Si ? 0.60%

  • C < 0.60%

May be used with or without final heat treatment. May be annealed, normalized, case hardened or quenched and tempered. May be killed [a], semikilled, capped, or rimmed, and, when necessary, the method of deoxidation may be specified.

Alloy Steels

The maximum range of elements exceed the above amounts. Steels containing up to 3.99 % Cr, and smaller amounts (generally 1 4%) of other alloying elements.

Alloys steels are always killed, but special deoxidation or melting practices, including vacuum, may be specified for special critical applications.

Stainless Steels

Generally contains at least 10% Cr, with or without other elements. Few contain more than 30% Cr or less than 50% Fe. In the U.S. the stainless steel classification includes those steels containing 4% Cr.

In the broadest sense, this category can be divided into three groups based on structure: austenitic-(400 Series) nonmagnetic in the annealed condition. Nonhardenable; can be hardened by cold working. The general-purpose grade is widely known as 18-8 (Cr-Ni). ferritic-(400 Series) always magnetic and contain Cr but no Ni. Basic grade contains 17% Cr. This group also contains a 12% Cr steel with other elements, such as Al or Ti, added to prevent hardening. martensitic-(300 Series) Magnetic and can be hardened by quenching and tempering. Basic grade contains 12% Cr. This series contains more...

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Products & Services
Tool Steels
Tool steels are wear resistant ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium.
Ferrous Metals and Iron Alloys
Ferrous metals and alloys are iron-based materials that are used in a wide variety of industrial applications.
Precision Shafting
Precision shafting provides the highest degree of overall accuracy, concentricity, straightness and surface perfection attainable in commercial practice.
Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels
Carbon steels are steels in which the main alloying additive is carbon. Alloy steels are steels alloyed with other metals or materials in addition to carbon to improve properties.

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Steels that contain specified amounts of alloying elements -- other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus -- are known as alloy steels.

Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a malleable, iron-based metal containing carbon, small amounts of manganese, and other elements that are inherently present. Steels can either be cast...

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