From Machinery's Handbook Pocket Companion


Table 1: Standard Steel Classification

Main Group



Carbon Steels

When maximum content of the main elements do not exceed the following:

  • Mn ? 1.65%

  • Si ? 0.60%

  • C < 0.60%

May be used with or without final heat treatment. May be annealed, normalized, case hardened or quenched and tempered. May be killed [a], semikilled, capped, or rimmed, and, when necessary, the method of deoxidation may be specified.

Alloy Steels

The maximum range of elements exceed the above amounts. Steels containing up to 3.99 % Cr, and smaller amounts (generally 1 4%) of other alloying elements.

Alloys steels are always killed, but special deoxidation or melting practices, including vacuum, may be specified for special critical applications.

Stainless Steels

Generally contains at least 10% Cr, with or without other elements. Few contain more than 30% Cr or less than 50% Fe. In the U.S. the stainless steel classification includes those steels containing 4% Cr.

In the broadest sense, this category can be divided into three groups based on structure: austenitic-(400 Series) nonmagnetic in the annealed condition. Nonhardenable; can be hardened by cold working. The general-purpose grade is widely known as 18-8 (Cr-Ni). ferritic-(400 Series) always magnetic and contain Cr but no Ni. Basic grade contains 17% Cr. This group also contains a 12% Cr steel with other elements, such as Al or Ti, added to prevent hardening. martensitic-(300 Series) Magnetic and can be hardened by quenching and tempering. Basic grade contains 12% Cr. This series contains more...

Products & Services
Stainless Steel Alloys
Stainless steels are steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium and are more resistant to corrosion than normal steels.
Tool Steels
Tool steels are wear resistant ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium.
Ferrous Metals and Iron Alloys
Ferrous metals and alloys are iron-based materials that are used in a wide variety of industrial applications.
Precision Shafting
Precision shafting provides the highest degree of overall accuracy, concentricity, straightness and surface perfection attainable in commercial practice.
Thermocouple Wire
Thermocouple wire is used to make or extend thermocouples. The wire connects thermocouples from the sensing point to the point of cold junction compensation (CJC).

Topics of Interest

STANDARDS FOR DRAWINGS Shop Prints, Reading and Interpreting Table 1: American National Standard for Engineering Drawings ANSI Y14.2M-1979, R1987 Visible Line Hidden Line Section Line Center Line...

Types of Steels Steels are of various types, and each type is used for a different purpose. Steels can be of the following types: Heat-resisting steels Magnetic steels Corrosion-resistant steels...

Steels that contain specified amounts of alloying elements -- other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus -- are known as alloy steels.

The hardening and tempering of steels and nonferrous alloys are important aspects of metalworking. Carbon and alloy steels are relied on to perform a great number of services in the metalworking...

Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a malleable, iron-based metal containing carbon, small amounts of manganese, and other elements that are inherently present. Steels can either be cast...

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