From Optical System Design

Glossary

A-C

Abbe number (also Vnumber)
( n d - 1)/( n F - n c), where n d is the refractive index at wavelengths d = 0.5876 ?m, F = 0.4861 ?m, and C = 0.6563 ?m. Also called V number.
aberration
Geometrical errors in imagery whereby a perfect (or stigmatic) image is not formed. Typical aberrations include spherical aberration, astigmatism, coma, and chromatic aberration. The aberration of distortion does not affect the image quality but rather the image position. Similarly field curvature creates an image on a curved image surface. Lens bendings, locations, powers, glass types, as well as number of lenses and stop position, are all used to minimize aberrations.
achromatic lens
A lens using two or more glass types which brings two colors to a common focus. Refractive along with diffractive optics can also lead to achromatic designs.
afocal lens
A lens system which takes collimated light input and produces collimated light out, such as a pair of binoculars, a telescope, and a beam expander.
Airy disk
The central maximum of the diffraction pattern from a perfect optical system with a circular unobscured aperture. The diameter of the Airy disk is 2.44 ? f/number.
anomaly, image
False or "ghostlike" images in thermal infrared systems which are caused by the detector "seeing," or sensing energy from, portions of the system interior (rather than scene energy). If the system interior is at a different...

Products & Services
Ball Lenses
Ball lenses are used to provide short focal lengths for use with collimated light and are often used in fiber coupling applications.
Gradient Index Lenses
Gradient index (GRIN) lenses focus light through a precisely controlled radial variation of the lens material's index of refraction from the optical axis to the edge of the lens.
Optical Lenses
Optical lenses are transparent components made from optical-quality materials and curved to converge or diverge transmitted rays from an object. These rays then form a real or virtual image of the object.  This area includes micro lenses.
Aspheric Lenses

Aspheric lenses compensate for spherical aberration and are used primarily for their light gathering ability.

Achromats
Achromats consist of two or more elements, usually of crown and flint glass, that have been corrected for chromatic aberration with respect to two selected wavelengths.  They are also known as achromatic lenses.  This area includes micro achromats as well.

Topics of Interest

2.9.   TWYMAN–GREEN INTERFEROGRAMS AND THEIR ANALYSIS The interferograms due to the primary aberrations can be described by using the wavefront function by Kingslake (1925–1926),...

Chapter 1: LENSES Chapter 2: AFOCAL SYSTEMS Chapter 3: POLARIZERS Chapter 4: NONDISPERSIVE PRISMS1 ,2 Chapter 5: DISPERSIVE PRISMS AND GRATINGS Chapter 6: INTEGRATED OPTICS Chapter 7: MINIATURE...

Glossary This glossary has been developed specifically to aid the reader of this volume in interpreting unfamiliar terms. The definitions are intended to have a practical, rather than formal,...

15.1 Introduction In previous chapters and in appendix A we discuss the means by which ray paths are traced through an optical system and how the numerical values of the image aberrations may be...

Aberration Structure of the Human Eye PABLO ARTAL, JUAN M. BUENO, ANTONIO GUIRAO, and PEDRO M. PRIETO Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain 2.1   INTRODUCTION The image-forming properties of any...