From Power Plant Water Chemistry: A Practical Guide


The preboiler system of a typical utility steam generating unit (Fig. 2-1) includes a steam surface condenser, several closed tube-in-shell feedwater heaters, a deaerating feedwater heater, and sometimes an economizer. For industrial systems, feedwater heaters, with the exception of the deaerator, are often omitted unless the steam drives a turbine. The preboiler circuit condenses the turbine exhaust steam and prepares the condensate for return to the boiler. The condensation process significantly improves the efficiency of a unit, as is outlined in greater detail in Supplement 2-1 at the end of this chapter.

Preboiler/Boiler/Afterboiler Schematic

Figure 2-1

The potential for contaminant introduction to a steam generating plant is greatest in the preboiler system, especially at the condenser or via condensate return from an industrial process. This makes chemistry control and monitoring of condensate and feedwater extremely important.

Condensate/Feedwater System Construction Materials

A variety of materials have been used for feedwater heater and condenser tubes. The most common include 90 10 and 70 30 copper nickel, 304 stainless steel, carbon steel, Admiralty metal (70% copper and 29% to 30% zinc depending on whether 1% arsenic or tin has been added for increased corrosion resistance), and Monel (70% nickel, 30% copper). In previous years, copper alloys were widely selected due to the excellent heat transfer properties of these materials. Recently; as copper corrosion and its effects on downstream components have become better recognized, the use of copper alloys has declined. Stainless steel is becoming favored for feedwater heater tubes; and stainless steel, titanium, or...

Products & Services
Economizers are mechanical devices that are designed to reduce energy consumption, or to perform other useful, energy-related functions (such as preheating fluids).
Deaerators are used to remove dissolved, corrosive gases from boiler feed water. They heat incoming makeup water for injection into the boiler, and return the condensate to a temperature which minimizes the solubility of these gases.
Condensate Polishers
Condensate polishers use ionic exchange to remove mineral contaminants that can limit performance and reduce system life in boilers, heat exchangers, HVAC cooling towers, steam turbines, nuclear power plants, and industrial processes.
Inline Heaters
Inline heaters instantly heat fluids that are passed through the device. Upon exiting the heater, the fluids are consumed for their intended use and are not re-circulated.
Boilers (industrial)
Industrial boilers are closed vessels that use a fuel source or electricity to heat water or generate steam for industrial heating and humidification applications.

Topics of Interest

Introduction Deposition of contaminants and corrosion are common in boilers and are the cause of many forced outages. Material damage and lost power generation or product output due to corrosion cost...

Overview Pumps are used for many purposes and a variety of services: for general utility service, cooling water, boiler feed, and lubrication; with condensing water and sumps; as booster pumps, etc.

APPLICATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING/Boiler Feedwater, Condensate Return & Make-up Water...

INTRODUCTION Many different materials are used in the construction of a steam generating system. They range from mild carbon steel for condensate/feedwater piping and boiler waterwall tubes, to...

This white paper shows how dealkalization of boiler feedwater improves boiler steam/condensate systems reliability, fuel savings, and chemical savings. The Return of Investment, ROI, is substantially...