From Practical MMIC Design

5.7 Phase Shifters

Phase shifters are used to delay or shift the phase of an RF signal by a fixed or variable amount. The phase shift can be continuously variable, as in an analog phase shifter, or it can be switched in discrete steps, as in a digital phase shifter. Analog phase-shifter designs include the reflective and the loaded-line styles, and digital phase-shifter designs include the switched-delay-line and switched-filter styles.

5.7.1 Reflective Phase Shifters

The reflective style of phase shifter [134 137] is constructed from a 90 hybrid coupler, such as a Lange coupler, connected to two varactor diodes that are de-biased through decoupling inductors, as in Figures 5.136 and 5.137. The Lange coupler splits the input power equally between the two diodes and couples the power reflected from the diodes to the output port. The phase of the reflected power from the varactor diodes is a function of their capacitance, which is varied by the control voltage.


Figure 5.136: Reflective analog phase shifter.

Figure 5.137: Reflective-type phase-shifter MMIC. (Courtesy of Alcatel Alenia Space France.)

5.7.2 Loaded-Line Phase Shifters

The loaded-line phase shifter [138 141] is constructed from a quarter-wavelength length of transmission line with a reactive load at each end, such as a varactor diode, as shown in Figure 5.138. The phase change along the transmission line varies according to the voltage on the varactors, which determines their capacitance. The varactor diodes at either end of the transmission line can be replaced with a switch connected to different lumped reactances in...

Copyright Artech House, Inc. 2006 under license agreement with Books24x7

Products & Services
RF Phase Shifters
RF phase shifters are twin-ported devices that alter the phase of an output signal in response to an external signal.
RF Waveguide Phase Shifters
RF waveguide phase shifters are two-port waveguide modules that alter the phase of an output signal in response to an external signal.
Varactor Diodes
Varactor diodes are p-n junction diodes that are designed to act as a voltage controlled capacitance when operated under reverse bias.
Diodes
Diodes are electronic components that conduct electric current in only one direction, functioning as a one-way valve. Diodes are manufactured using semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium or selenium and are used as voltage regulators, signal rectifiers, oscillators and signal modulators / demodulators.
RF Diodes
RF diodes are designed to handle high-power radio frequency (RF) signals in stereo amplifiers, radio transmitters, television monitors, and other RF or microwave devices.

Topics of Interest

5.8 Switched-Path Attenuators Switched-path attenuators [149 151] are constructed from two SPDT switches with two paths in between, and each path has a different attenuation, as shown in Figure...

6.6 Multi-Bit Digital Phase Shifter Operating at K and K a Frequencies 6.6.1 Introduction Precision missile tracking radar, tactical fighter fire control radar, and modern communications systems...

6.9 Three-Bit, Ultralow Loss Distributed Phase Shifter Operating over K-Band Frequencies 6.9.1 Introduction Low-loss phase shifters are of critical importance for modern-phased array tracking radar...

6.11 Summary RF/microwave phased shifters can be classified into two distinct categories, namely, absorption type and reflection type. Absorption-type phase shifters are widely used at RF/microwave...

6.7 Ultrawide Band Four-Bit True-Time-Delay MEMS Phase Shifter Operating over dc-40 GHz 6.7.1 Introduction Four-bit reflection phase shifters have been designed at X-band frequencies using MEMS...