From Pressure Vessels : ASME Code Simplified, Eighth Edition

Simplified Calculations for Reinforcement of Openings (Fig. 2.12)

To determine whether an opening is adequately reinforced, it is first necessary to determine whether the areas of reinforcement available will be sufficient without the use of a pad. Figure 2.12 includes a schematic diagram of an opening showing the involved areas and also all the required calculations. The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required (in square inches) is indicated by the letter A, which is equal to the diameter (plus corrosion allowance) times the required thickness. The area of reinforcement available without a pad includes

Figure 2.12: Calculation sheet for reinforcement of openings.
  1. The area of excess thickness in the shell or head, A 1

  2. The area of excess thickness in the nozzle wall, A 2

  3. The area available in the nozzle projecting inward, A 3

  4. The cross-sectional area of welds, A 4

If the reinforcement is found to be inadequate, then the area of pad needed ( A 5) may be calculated as follows:

If a pad is used, the factor (2.5 t n) in the equation for A 2 in Fig. 2.12 is measured from the top surface of the pad and therefore becomes (2.5 t n+ T p). The area A 2 must be recalculated on this basis and the smaller value again used. Then:

Other symbols for the area equations in Fig. 2.12 (all values except E 1 and F are in inches)...

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2004 under license agreement with Books24x7

Products & Services
Glass Fibers and Fiberglass Cloth
Glass fibers and fiberglass cloth consist of bulk, chopped fibers or continuous strands of glass. Glass fibers and fiberglass cloth is used in reinforcing plastics and composites as well as other specialized electrical and thermal applications.
Expanded Sheet Materials
Expanded sheet materials are designed with patterns of diamond-shaped openings and are produced by slitting and stretching the sheet materials.
Hydraulic Hose
Hydraulic hose is specifically designed to convey hydraulic fluid to or among hydraulic components, valves, actuators, and tools.
Synthetic Fibers and Fabrics
Synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics consist of bulk fibers, yarns, woven cloth or other textile products manufactured from polymer-based materials such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, aramid, or other spun thermoplastics.
Industrial Hose
Industrial hose covers the broad spectrum of fluid transfer lines. Hose is usually flexible, often reinforced, and available in a wide range of material compositions to cover various hydraulic and pneumatic industrial applications.

Topics of Interest

Cryogenic and Low-Temperature Vessels Use of cryogenic and low-temperature pressure vessels is increasing rapidly, but there have been many defects caused by improper materials and poorly designed...

SYMBOLS [13], [14], [15] a length of the long side of a rectangular plate, m (in) pitch or distance between stays, m (in) major axis of elliptical plate, m (in) long span of noncircular heads or...

NOTES A TOILET PARTITIONS ( [4]) Typical widths: 2 ?6 ?, 2 ?8 ?, 2 ?10 ? (most-used), and 3 ?0 ? Typical depths: Open front: 2 ?6 ? to 4 ?0 ? Closed front (door): 4 ?6 ? to 4 ?9 ? Typical doors: 1 ?...

2.5 Tensile Strength Effects Caused by Cross-Head Speeds As the strain rate or cross-head speed is increased, the tensile modulus of the polymer being tested also increases. However, the elongation...

SELECTED SYMBOLS AND ABBREVATIONS Symbol or Abbreviation Description A s Total required reinforcement area A s(min) Minimum area of reinforcement B Width of footing b Width of footing b o...