From Pressure Vessels : ASME Code Simplified, Eighth Edition
Simplified Calculations for Reinforcement of Openings (Fig. 2.12)
To determine whether an opening is adequately reinforced, it is first necessary to determine whether the areas of reinforcement available will be sufficient without the use of a pad. Figure 2.12 includes a schematic diagram of an opening showing the involved areas and also all the required calculations. The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required (in square inches) is indicated by the letter A, which is equal to the diameter (plus corrosion allowance) times the required thickness. The area of reinforcement available without a pad includes
Figure 2.12: Calculation sheet for reinforcement of openings.
The area of excess thickness in the shell or head, A 1
The area of excess thickness in the nozzle wall, A 2
The area available in the nozzle projecting inward, A 3
The cross-sectional area of welds, A 4
If the reinforcement is found to be inadequate, then the area of pad needed ( A 5) may be calculated as follows:
If a pad is used, the factor (2.5 t n) in the equation for A 2 in Fig. 2.12 is measured from the top surface of the pad and therefore becomes (2.5 t n+ T p). The area A 2 must be recalculated on this basis and the smaller value again used. Then:
Other symbols for the area equations in Fig. 2.12 (all values except E 1 and F are in inches)...
Products & Services
Topics of Interest
Cryogenic and Low-Temperature Vessels Use of cryogenic and low-temperature pressure vessels is increasing rapidly, but there have been many defects caused by improper materials and poorly designed...
SYMBOLS , ,  a length of the long side of a rectangular plate, m (in) pitch or distance between stays, m (in) major axis of elliptical plate, m (in) long span of noncircular heads or...
Shop Inspection An authorized inspector s first step in the shop inspection of Code vessels is to review the design. It is the manufacturer s responsibility to submit drawings, calculations, and the...
NOTES A TOILET PARTITIONS ( ) Typical widths: 2 ?6 ?, 2 ?8 ?, 2 ?10 ? (most-used), and 3 ?0 ? Typical depths: Open front: 2 ?6 ? to 4 ?0 ? Closed front (door): 4 ?6 ? to 4 ?9 ? Typical doors: 1 ?...
2.5 Tensile Strength Effects Caused by Cross-Head Speeds As the strain rate or cross-head speed is increased, the tensile modulus of the polymer being tested also increases. However, the elongation...