BOOK_CONTENT
From Pressure Vessels : ASME Code Simplified, Eighth Edition

Simplified Calculations for Reinforcement of Openings (Fig. 2.12)

To determine whether an opening is adequately reinforced, it is first necessary to determine whether the areas of reinforcement available will be sufficient without the use of a pad. Figure 2.12 includes a schematic diagram of an opening showing the involved areas and also all the required calculations. The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required (in square inches) is indicated by the letter A, which is equal to the diameter (plus corrosion allowance) times the required thickness. The area of reinforcement available without a pad includes


Figure 2.12: Calculation sheet for reinforcement of openings.
  1. The area of excess thickness in the shell or head, A 1

  2. The area of excess thickness in the nozzle wall, A 2

  3. The area available in the nozzle projecting inward, A 3

  4. The cross-sectional area of welds, A 4


If the reinforcement is found to be inadequate, then the area of pad needed ( A 5) may be calculated as follows:


If a pad is used, the factor (2.5 t n) in the equation for A 2 in Fig. 2.12 is measured from the top surface of the pad and therefore becomes (2.5 t n+ T p). The area A 2 must be recalculated on this basis and the smaller value again used. Then:


Other symbols for the area equations in Fig. 2.12 (all values except E 1 and F are in inches)...

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