## Simplified Calculations for Reinforcement of Openings (Fig. 2.12)

To determine whether an opening is adequately reinforced, it is first necessary to determine whether the areas of reinforcement available will be sufficient without the use of a pad. Figure 2.12 includes a schematic diagram of an opening showing the involved areas and also all the required calculations. The total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required (in square inches) is indicated by the letter A, which is equal to the diameter (plus corrosion allowance) times the required thickness. The area of reinforcement available without a pad includes

Figure 2.12: Calculation sheet for reinforcement of openings.
1. The area of excess thickness in the shell or head, A 1

2. The area of excess thickness in the nozzle wall, A 2

3. The area available in the nozzle projecting inward, A 3

4. The cross-sectional area of welds, A 4

If the reinforcement is found to be inadequate, then the area of pad needed ( A 5) may be calculated as follows:

If a pad is used, the factor (2.5 t n) in the equation for A 2 in Fig. 2.12 is measured from the top surface of the pad and therefore becomes (2.5 t n+ T p). The area A 2 must be recalculated on this basis and the smaller value again used. Then:

Other symbols for the area equations in Fig. 2.12 (all values except E 1 and F are in inches)...

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Glass Fibers and Fiberglass Cloth
Glass fibers and fiberglass cloth consist of bulk, chopped fibers or continuous strands of glass. Glass fibers and fiberglass cloth is used in reinforcing plastics and composites as well as other specialized electrical and thermal applications.
Expanded Sheet Materials
Expanded sheet materials are designed with patterns of diamond-shaped openings and are produced by slitting and stretching the sheet materials.
Synthetic Fibers and Fabrics
Synthetic fibers and synthetic fabrics consist of bulk fibers, yarns, woven cloth or other textile products manufactured from polymer-based materials such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, aramid, or other spun thermoplastics.
Hydraulic Hose
Hydraulic hose is specifically designed to convey hydraulic fluid to or among hydraulic components, valves, actuators, and tools.
Mechanical Brakes
Mechanical brakes convert kinetic energy to other energy forms, primarily heat. They decelerate shafts and linked components via friction between a rotating body and wear-resistant material.

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