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##### From Radiant Heating and Cooling Handbook
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER-AIDED THERMAL COMFORT DESIGN TOOLS
Chapter 2: THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR LOCALIZED THERMAL COMFORT
Chapter 32: EXAMPLE DESIGN CALCULATIONS USING ABOVE
Chapter 4: SIZING, DESIGN, AND METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS

## Overview

Almost since the advent of computerized applications, researchers have worked to computerize the methodologies that are necessary to do the following:

• Calculate the heating-cooling load for a building

• Calculate thermal comfort parameters for a given heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) installation

• Optimize thermal comfort relative to energy consumption

These programs have progressed to the point where they are classified as one of the following:

• Whole-building simulations

• Localized thermal comfort simulations

• Auxiliary applications

Whole-building simulations help the user to select the equipment needed and to necessarily incorporate the efficiencies of the heat generation equipment and heating or cooling distribution design. Localized thermal comfort simulations determine the amount and design of heating or cooling required to meet the specification for the room or area, but they do not incorporate energy conversion or transmission factors. Auxiliary applications are specialized programs that enhance the capability of the master program for particular building components or performance features.

## 1.1 WHOLE-BUILDING SIMULATIONS

The most comprehensive and well-known whole-building applications are the BLAST and DOE/DOE-2 building models. These complex programs reportedly have had fewer than 500 users in the United States, mainly government laboratories and departments, corporations, and large engineering design firms. These computer simulations treat each room in a building as a cell that is at a uniform temperature.

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Curtain Walls
Curtain walls are lightweight exterior cladding systems that attach to a building or structure, usually from floor to floor, to provide a façade. They modify the exterior appearance, but do not carry the dead load of the building or structure.
Computer-aided Engineering Software (CAE)
Computer-aided engineering software (CAE) is used in engineering, analysis and manufacturing
Air Conditioners
Air conditioners and building air conditioners are used in industrial, process computing, networking, and other spaces where thermal management is important.  Space and spot cooling equipment are used wherever total heat must be controlled or where localized heat sources must be managed.  Many refrigerants are used in air conditioners; CFC-free refrigerants are becoming more prevalent and in fact are required in many applications.
Cooling Towers
Cooling towers are defined as any open water recirculation device that uses fans or natural draft to draw or force air to contact and cool water by evaporation.
Boilers (Industrial)
Industrial boilers are closed vessels that use a fuel source or electricity to heat water or generate steam for industrial heating and humidification applications.

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