From Ship Design and Construction, Volume II
Brian Veitch Neil Bose I. Jordaan M. Haddara D. Spencer

Newfoundland The Steamship Arizona as She Appeared on Her Arrival at St. John's after Her Collision with an Iceberg, November 7, 1879. Reproduced from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 13, 1879


40.1.1 Mission Introduction

Ships whose missions take them into ice-covered waters must be designed to operate effectively in an environment distinguished by cold temperatures, often remote location, and the presence of sea ice. Sea ice can be from a few centimeters to several meters thick, take on a variety of morphological forms, and change on daily, seasonal, and annual bases.

The transportation requirements that drive conventional shipping demands also prevail in ice-covered waters. Consequently, the ship types and missions of many ice-capable vessels correspond essentially to conventional ships. Ice-breakers and ice-management vessels are unique ship types that are designed specifically to operate in ice, usually in support of transportation services or infrastructure.

Early ice-going ships were basically similar to conventional ships with the addition of some hull strengthening. Modern commercial requirements to extend the navigation into areas and seasons with greater ice thickness and coverage have led to a commensurate extension of vessels' ice navigation capabilities. The impact on hull form, structure, propulsion, and auxiliary systems that operating in ice will have on any particular vessel is a function of its mission.

To describe the mission of ice-capable ships, the approach taken here is to describe first the environment and then typical operational...

Products & Services
Marine Services
Marine services provide repair, maintenance, logistics, testing, storage, and transportation services for boats, ships, oil tankers, and other watercraft.
Deicing and Anti-icing Equipment
Deicing and anti-icing equipment removes and prevents the buildup of snow, ice, or frost on the frames of aircraft by chemical, thermal, pneumatic, or electromechanical means.
Motion Reference Units (MRU)
Motion reference Units (MRU) is a solid state motion reference device capable of measuring pitch, roll, heave, and heading to a high degree of accuracy
Automatic Identification Systems (AIS)

Automatic identification systems (AISs) transmits location data about a vessel to other ships and coastal facilities. An AIS is required on large vessels, tankers, and some ships that operate in congested waters.

Bollards are structures used to protect buildings from vehicular impact, restrict access or serve as landscape enhancement.

Topics of Interest

Jakob Pinkster 41.1 NOMENCLATURE a.c. Alternating electrical current B Beam Bp Taylor propeller coefficient D Propeller diameter (m) Hull depth (m) d.c. Direct electrical current E Static head...

In cold climate waters, the formation of ice on ships and offshore platforms can create serious problems impacting the safety of personnel and the economies of operation. Icing can be caused by sea...

Using the Contradiction Matrix A step-by-step walkthrough of the Contradiction Matrix using a sample problem by Lev Shulyak Icebreaker: It is necessary to move cargo in the winter through waterways...

IAEA indirect energy IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency (est. 1957); an intergovernmental organization that serves as a center of cooperation in the nuclear energy field. It was set up as the...

Thomas Lamb Markku Kanerva 35.1 DESCRIPTION 35.1.1 Mission The mission of roll-on/roll-off ships (ROROs) is to transport cargo that is capable of being rolled on to and off ships, thus eliminating...