From Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers, Fifth Edition
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida
Surveying is the science and art of making the measurements necessary to determine the relative positions of points above, on, or beneath the surface of the earth or to establish such points. Surveying continues to undergo important changes.
12.1 Types of Surveys
Plane surveying neglects curvature of the earth and is suitable for small areas.
Geodetic surveying takes into account curvature of the earth. It is applicable for large areas, long lines, and precisely locating basic points suitable for controlling other surveys.
Land, boundary, and cadastral surveys usually are closed surveys that establish property lines and corners. The term cadastral is now generally reserved for surveys of the public lands. There are two major categories: retracement surveys and subdivision surveys.
Topographic surveys provide the location of natural and artificial features and elevations used in map making.
Route surveys normally start at a control point and progress to another control point in the most direct manner permitted by field conditions. They are used for surveys for railroads, highways, pipelines, etc.
Construction surveys are made while construction is in progress to control elevations, horizontal positions and dimensions, and configuration. Such surveys also are made to obtain essential data for computing construction pay quantities.
As-built surveys are postconstruction surveys that show the exact final location and layout of civil engineering works, to provide positional verification and records that include design changes.
Products & Services
Topics of Interest
Charles H.Sain Consulting Engineer Birmingham, Alabama G.William Quinby Consulting Engineer Golden, Colorado Overview Earthwork involves movement of a portion of the earth s surface...
OVERVIEW A control survey provides a framework of survey points, whose relative positions, in two or three dimensions, are known to specified degrees of accuracy. The areas covered by these points...
CHAPTER LIST Appendix A: Aerial Mapping and Surveying Appendix B: Stream Restoration Appendix C: Soils Appendix D: Wastewater Treatment Appendix E: Water Supply and Treatment Appendix...
HIGHWAY ROUTE SURVEYING Highway surveys involve measuring and computing horizontal and vertical angles, elevations, and horizontal distances. The results of these surveys are used to prepare...
8.1 INTRODUCTION Engineering surveying is concerned essentially with fixing the position of a point in two or three dimensions. For example, in the production of a plan or map, one is concerned in...