From Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Second Edition
F. X. Browne, Ph.D., P.E*

[*]

OVERVIEW

Stormwater management encompasses all elements of the hydrologic cycle but focuses on how humans affect the production, movement, and control of surface runoff. In a natural system, the rate of surface runoff is controlled by the rainfall rate, soil conditions, vegetation, and subsurface geology.

Urbanization creates large impervious areas that increase the quantity and peak rate of runoff. Rainfall then washes deposited materials directly into surface waters, causing stream pollution. Organics create oxygen demands, nutrients accelerate lake eutrophication, and heavy metals accumulate in bottom sediments.

Environmental engineers use modern stormwater management practices to employ natural and manmade systems to minimize environmental damage. A complete stormwater management program contains many elements, including on-site infiltration and detention, collection and transport systems, regional flood control, and major stream channel improvements (Figure 7.1).


Figure 7.1: Elements of the total stormwater system.

In years past, sanitary wastes and stormwater were collected in the same (combined) sewer. During heavy rainfall, the sewers would overflow, creating water pollution problems. Many of these combined sewers have been separated, and the remaining overflows are treated as point sources. Stormwater management practices are used to lessen the requirements and costs for combined sewer overflow treatment facilities.

[*]This chapter was prepared in association with Debra Baker; Robert C. Borden, Ph.D., P.E.; Robert W. Feild; and Charles J. Newell, Ph.D., P.E. as employees of F. X. Browne Associates, Inc.

RAINFALL

Rainfall is the basic controlling factor in stormwater runoff processes. Because rainfall is the...

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Culverts are devices used to allow flow of water beneath roads and access points were passage is necessary.
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Weather Instruments
Weather instruments are designed to measure one or multiple components of weather including wind speed and direction, rain or snow fall, solar radiation, temperature, pressure and humidity.
Lift Stations
Lift stations contain pumps, valves, and electrical equipment necessary to pump water or wastewater from a low elevation to a high elevation.
Wastewater Treatment Operating Services
Wastewater treatment operating services are publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) that serve residential, commercial, and industrial facilities and infrastructures.

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