From Troubleshooting: A Technician's Guide, 2nd Edition


  1. Goettsche, L.D., ed. Maintenance of Instruments and Systems. Research Triangle Park, NC: ISA, 1995.

  2. Recommended Practice for Classification for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities - API RP 500. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, 1991.

  3. Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants - API RP 540. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, 1974.

  4. Magison, E. C. Electrical Instruments in Hazardous Locations, 4th ed. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle, NC, 1998.

  5. Classification of Gases, Liquids, and Volatile Solids Relative to Explosion-Proof Electrical Equipment - NMAB 353-5. National Technical Information Services, Springfield, Va.

  6. National Electrical Code (NEC) - NFPA-70. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, Current.

  7. Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment NFPA-496. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1989.

  8. Classification of Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas NFPA-497A, Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1986.

  9. Classification of Class II Hazardous (Classified) Location for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas NFPA-497B. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1991.

  10. Classification of Gases, Vapors, and Dusts for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous (Classified) Locations - NFPA-497M. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1991.

  11. Occupational Safety and Health Standard, Subpart S - Electrical, CFR, Title 29, Part 1910, Subpart S.

  12. Neitzel, D. K. "OSHA's Electrical Safety Standards."

  13. Mostia, W. L. Jr., P.E., "Explosion-Proof vs. Intrinsic Safety." Control, June 1997.

  14. Mostia, W. L. Jr., P.E., "How to Design Enclosure Purge Systems." Control,...

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Fire Protection Services
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Fire Sprinkler Heads
Fire sprinkler heads deliver a high-pressure flow of water or dry chemicals to a fire. They are usually are heat-activated and part of a larger fire prevention and safety system.
Manual Valve Actuators
Manual valve actuators do not require an outside power source. They use a handwheel or lever to drive a series of gears whose ratio results in a higher output torque compared to the input (manual) torque.
Fluid Heat Transfer Systems
Fluid heat transfer systems circulate thermal fluid through process equipment to maintain an even, consistent temperature profile.
Electrical Contracting Services
Electrical contracting services install and maintain electrical distribution equipment; interior, exterior and municipal lighting; security systems and closed circuit television systems (CCTV); and information technology or IT systems.

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