From Water Contamination Emergencies: Can We Cope?
D E Huffman,
College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 7 th Ave.
South St. Petersburg, Florida USA

1 INTRODUCTION

It has been 10 years since the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin's drinking water became contaminated with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. This single drinking water outbreak would become the focal point of hundreds of research studies focusing on the cause of this outbreak as well as methods for the prevention of future outbreaks of this magnitude. Could this outbreak have been prevented and what have we learned over the last decade with regard to Cryptosporidium parvum?

2 CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

If we begin with the basic biology of this organism, Cryptosporidium parvum belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa (referred to as the Sporozoa) and is one of approximately 5,000 species. It is a coccidian parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract and has become one of the most important enteric pathogens in both humans and animals. The parasite was first described in 1907 by Tyzzer [1], but over the last two decades there has been an escalation of published material on the biology, genomic characterization, taxonomy, transmission, detection and public health risks associated with this organism. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] There are currently ten recognized species within the genus Cryptosporidium, namely, C. baileyi and C. meleagridis found in birds, C. felis found in cats, C. muris found predominately in mice, and C. wrairi in guinea pigs, C. andersoni in...


Products & Services
Agricultural and Farming Products and Equipment

Agricultural farming products and equipment concerns the vast array machinery, tools, and vehicles employed in horticultural and animal husbandry industries.

Biological Materials
Biological materials are biocompatible materials, natural or man-made, that comprise a whole or a part of a living structure or biomedical device that performs, augments, or replaces a natural function
Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) Electrodes
Oxygen reduction potential (ORP) electrodes are analytical sensors for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP).
Fuels and Fuel Products
Fuels and fuel products include gasoline, diesel oil, natural gas, propane, coal, fossil fuels, biofuels and other combustible fluids or materials.
Water and Sewer Utility Services
Water and sewer utility services supply drinking water, remove sewage and wastewater, and/or install connections from processing facilities to private or public water lines and sewers. They supply water to commercial, industrial, and residential end-users; and receive sewage, wastewater, and other used water (such as gray water) for treatment

Topics of Interest

M. Furness, Quality and Environmental Assurance Severn Trent Water 1 COURSE OF EVENTS On the morning of Friday 15 th April 1994, Severn Trent Water experienced a drinking water quality problem which...

Carbon filters are best at removing chlorine, taste, odor, color and various other organic compounds from the fluid. They are generally not effective at removing inorganic compounds or other...

Robert A.Bergman, P.E. CH2M HILL Gainesville, Florida A wide variety of membrane processes can be categorized according to driving force, membrane type and configuration, and removal capabilities and...

The form of the malaria parasite inoculated by the mosquito, called the sporozoite, transforms inside the host liver into thousands of a new form of the parasite, called the merozoite, which infects...

8.1 Introduction Level flight performance may be described as steady state performance. It is a condition where all of the forces acting on the airplane are in balance or: (8.1) (8.2) where L =...