Sites:
##### From Working Guide to Process Equipment, Third Edition

I imagine that many readers might skip this chapter. After all, a nozzle is simply a hole in a vessel, flanged up to a pipe (see Fig. 14.1). Why a whole chapter? Well, it is not that simple. Lots of process problems occur due to improperly designed draw-off nozzles.

Figure 14.1: A draw-off nozzle.

## 14.1 Nozzle Exit Loss

The pressure drop of a fluid flowing through a nozzle is equal to

 ()
 where ? H = pressure loss of the fluid as it flows through the nozzle, in inches of fluid V = velocity of the fluid, as it flows through the nozzle, in feet per second

This equation assumes that before the fluid enters the nozzle, its velocity is small, compared to its velocity in the nozzle. The increase in the velocity, or the kinetic energy, of the fluid in the nozzle comes from the pressure of the fluid. This is Bernoulli s equation in action. The energy to accelerate the fluid in the draw-off nozzle comes from the potential energy of the fluid. This is Newton s second law of motion.

The coefficient used in the equation above (0.34) assumes the process fluid has a low viscosity. For most process nozzles, this is a reasonable assumption. Detailed information on draw-off nozzle coefficients has been published in Crane. 1

For me, I don t trust published coefficients. I like to prove it myself: prove it by experimentation. Often, Liz (my co-author) calls to me in the bathroom, Norm, what are you doing?

##### Products & Services
Spray Guns and Applicators
Spray guns and applicators form a coating by directing atomized paints, adhesives, liquids, or powders toward a surface. These devices affect droplet sizes and spray patterns which influence the efficiency of the spray.
Nozzles
Nozzles alter and control the stream or spray pattern of a fluid in a spray coating or dispensing system.
Pressure Washers
Pressure washers direct a high-pressure stream or jet of water against a surface to clean, descale, degrease or prepare a surface.
Jet Pumps
Jet pumps are typically used for drawing water up from a well. These pumps can be used for either shallow or deep well configurations.
Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are commonly used in a wide variety of industrial, chemical, and electronics processes to transfer energy and provide required heating or cooling.

##### Topics of Interest

Overview There are two ways to remove heat from a distillation tower: top reflux and circulating reflux. In this chapter, we call a circulating-reflux stream a pumparound. The vast majority of...

4.1 Introduction In this chapter, we discuss the types of thin shear layers that occur in flows in which the Reynolds number is large. The first of these is the boundary layer, or region near a solid...

Bernoulli's Theorem Applying the principle of conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) to a flowing fluid (Fig. 2-4), the following Bernoulli equation is obtained for the steady flow of a...

The need to operate under vacuum is widespread throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Distillation, drying, flash cooling, stripping, and evaporation are among the unit operations that...

Flow nozzles are similar to Venturi tubes, but the nozzle opening is an elliptical restriction in the flow. There is no outlet area for pressure recovery and pressure loss is comparable to an orifice...

Product Announcements
Graco Inc.
Graco Inc.
Graco Inc.