From Industrial Electronics for Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians: With Optional Lab Experiments

WHAT THEY ARE

DC Types

Because an automobile has a good supply of dc from the storage battery, there are many dc motors for such tasks as raising and lowering the windows, and many motor-like actuators for things like automatically regulating the air intake. Much larger dc motors are also used in industrial machines, elevators, and other activities involving a lot of starting and stopping, and changing of speed.

A simplified dc electric motor is diagrammed in Fig. 20.1. A coil "stator" is stationary, and a steel magnet "rotor" can rotate around the axle signified by a black dot. The half-circle is a copper metal "commutator," so the electromagnet can be turned on in order to attract the "north" pole of the iron permanent magnet, which then swings up to the position shown by the dashed lines. In order to prevent this pole from tending to stop when it gets to that position, the conductive graphite "brushes" signified by the small white circles will lose contact with the commutator. The coil then loses its magnetism, and the rotor can continue spinning by inertia, until it comes around again to a position where it will be attracted when the commutator regains contact to the brushes.


Figure 20.1: A dc motor, with a mechanical commutator switch.

The reader probably knows already that real motors have more coils and poles, and more complex commutators. There is more than one pulse of attraction, and sometimes the current is reversed to also cause repulsion. The...

Copyright Noyes Publications 2001 under license agreement with Books24x7

Products & Services
Commutators
Commutators are rotary electrical switches that are used to reverse the direction of a current between a rotor and an external circuit.
Linear Motors
Linear motors generate force only in the direction of travel. They are capable of extremely high speeds, quick acceleration, and accurate positioning.
Brushless Motors
Brushless motors are synchronous electric motors that have a magnetically (AC induction) or electronically (DC) controlled commutation system instead of a brush-based mechanical commutation system.
DC Motors
DC motors are most commonly used in variable speed and torque applications. They include brushless and gear motors, as well as servomotors.
Magnetic Chucks
Magnetic chucks use the magnetic force from a permanent magnet, electromagnet or electro-permanent magnet to achieve chucking or holding action. They are only suitable for workpieces made of magnetic materials such as steel or iron.

Topics of Interest

THROTTLING AC CURRENT It was pointed out that high currents can be controlled by reactance without losing energy as heat, back in the chapters on capacitors (page 102) and inductors (page 115).

Brushless DC motors (BLDCs) achieve commutation electronically by utilizing a permanent-magnet rotor, wound stator, and rotor-position sensing scheme instead of a mechanical commutator or brushes...

The dsPIC30F2010 is a 28-pin 16-bit MCU specifically designed for embedded motor control applications. AC Induction Motors (ACIM), Brushless DC (BLDC) and DC are some typical motor types for which the...

PRINCIPLES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRIC MOTORS 121. Types of electric motors. Electric motors are manufactured in a number of different types. They may be divided into three main...

Commutator fusing was developed in the early 1950's as a method of manufacturing small universal or DC electric motors. The early process of attaching wires to the commutator required dipping the...