In This Chapter
- Introduction to Robotic Manipulators
- Classifi cation of Sensors
- Encoders and Dead Reckoning
- Infrared Sensors
- Ground-based RF Systems
- Active Beacons
- Ultrasonic Transponder Trilateration
- Laser Range Finder
- Vision-based Sensors
- Color-tracking Sensors
- Sensor Mounting Arrangement
- Design of the Circuitry
- Reading the Pulses in a Computer
6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORS
There are a wide variety of sensors used in mobile robots (Figure 6.1). Some sensors are used to measure simple values like the internal temperature of a robot s electronics or the rotational speed of the motors. Other, more sophisticated sensors can be used to acquire information about the robot s environment or even to directly measure a robot s global position. We classify sensors using two important functional axes:
- proprioceptive/exteroceptive and
FIGURE 6.1 Examples of robots with multisensor systems.
(a) Helpmate from Transition Research Corporation;
(b) BIBA Robot, BlueBotics SA.
Proprioceptive sensors measure values internal to the system (robot); for example, motor speed, wheel load, robot arm joint angles, and battery voltage.
Exteroceptive sensors acquire information from the robot s environment; for example, distance measurements, light intensity, and sound amplitude. Hence, exteroceptive sensor measurements are interpreted by the robot in order to extract meaningful environmental features.
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