The first linear motor was conceived by Wheatstone more than 100 years ago. But large air gaps and low efficiencies prevented linear motors from being widely used. Though they still have relatively large air gaps, linear induction motors are increasingly chosen for material-handling applications because they are quieter, more reliable, and less expensive than rotary motors. And because linear motors do not drive gearboxes or rotary-to-linear conversion devices, they can be more efficient. A linear motor is conceptually a rotary motor whose stator core has been cut and unrolled. The circular stator becomes a linear stator, defining a single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM). Likewise, if the circular stator is cut into two sections and flattened, the motor becomes a double-sided linear induction motor (DLIM). The DLIM and SLIM both require a two or three-phase stator (primary) winding and a flat metallic or conductive plate-type armature (secondary). Cutting and unrolling the stator leads to many other possible linear motor configurations. For example, a tubular motor can be conceptually made from the SLIM by rerolling it in the direction of motion. The pole pattern is produced by three-phase windings in alternate clockwise and counterclockwise directions around the tube. Other designs are also possible, but few of them are used. There are several important differences between linear and rotary induction motors that bear on selection. Unlike rotary motors, the linear motor has a beginning and an end to its travel. First, the moving secondary material enters the primary at one end of the motor and exits at the opposite end. Induced currents in the secondary material at the entry edge resist air-gap flux buildup. And at the exit edge, the material retards the air-gap flux decay. This results in an uneven air-gap flux distribution. Such flux distribution causes little or no thrust under the
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Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength.
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Forgings and forged stock are metals and alloys that are thermo-mechanically pressed or forged into bars, rods, or other shapes.
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Zinc and zinc alloys are non-ferrous alloys that are used widely in the production of die cast components.
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Metal foils and foil stock are very thin, metal-mill products with a thickness that is usually less than 0.006 in. Copper foil and aluminum foil are the most common types of metal foils and foil stock.
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4.3 Copper and Copper Alloys
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6. Conclusions and future work
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