Advanced forging processes now yield parts with directional strength and high impact resistance. A thin-walled ring takes shape on a ring mill. A spindle has been forged and is now being planished under the press to achieve a smooth surface, keeping stock allowance to a minimum. The open-die and rolled-ring forging process can produce parts in a virtually limitless array of sizes, shapes, materials, and finishes. Forging is one of the oldest mechanical metalworking processes. It forms and shapes metals through the use of hammering and pressing. A cast ingot (or a "cogged" billet that has already been forged from a cast ingot) is heated to its plastic deformation temperature, then upset or "kneaded" between dies to the desired shape and size. Recent advances in forging technology, including better equipment and the use of computers and electronic controls, have greatly increased the ability to produce superior quality metal parts in a wide array of sizes, shapes, materials, and finishes. Several well-known forging processes include impression or closed die, cold forging, and extrusion. There are also open-die and seamless-rolled-ring forging processes, each offering their own advantages while serving in diverse applications ranging from high-quality driveshafts, gear rims, pinions, and couplings to eye bolts, nozzles, hydraulic cylinders, and suspension components. Open-die forging shapes heated metal parts between a top die attached to a ram and a bottom die attached to a hammer anvil or press bed. Metal parts are worked above their recrystallization temperatures (1,900 to 2,400°F for steel) and gradually shaped into the desired profile through skillful hammering or pressing operations. Unlike impression or closed-die forging that confines the metal in dies, open-die forging uses flat dies that do not completely confine or restrain the metal. However, round swaging dies, V-dies, mandrels, pins, and loose tools are also used depending on the
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In the forging process, metal is shaped by pressing, pounding, or squeezing under very high pressure, to form parts called forgings. Forging processes include cold forging or heading, impression or closed die, open die, and seamless rolled ring.
Forgings and Forged Stock
Forgings and forged stock are metals and alloys that are thermo-mechanically pressed or forged into bars, rods, or other shapes.
Forging Machines (hot forming)
Forging machines (hot forming) use compressive force and a high workpiece temperature to shape metal by plastic deformation. A type of hot forming, hot forging involves the plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature and strain rate where recrystallization and deformation occur simultaneously. This prevents strain hardening, which can reduce ductility and contribute to brittle failure and structural fatigue.
Thread Rolling Dies
Thread rolling dies are used to cold-form external threads or splines by pressing a hardened die into a rotating workpiece. Thread rolling produces stronger threads than those machined with a cutting tool and is generally less expensive.
Powder Compacting Equipment
Powder compacting equipment is used to shape powders as part of a forming process and to compress a wide range of materials into compact shapes for ease of transportation and handling.
Topics of Interest
There are basically three methods (or processes) to make a forged part.
Impression Die Forging
Open Die Forging
Seamless Rolled Ring Forging...
In the impression die forging process, a press or hammer is used to pound or press metal into the desired shape. The hydraulic presses, mechanical presses and hammers used in this process have...
Within the name of forging, a lot of different processes are referred to, so that a classification must be endeavored. As for other metal-forming processes, the deformation temperature can...
Tooling. Tooling is a general term used to encompass many different processes involving the design and manufacture of special tools, dies, molds, jigs, and fixtures. The most common...
Cold forging, also known as cold heading, is a variation of impression die forging and may include processes such as bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusions, punching, thread rolling,...