The U.S. military has so many diesel-powered vehicles, it's natural for them to want to improve their efficiency. The solid model of the cylinder shows the detail necessary for the thermal and stress simulations. Steady-state heat-transfer analysis, conducted with Algor FEA software, revealed high temperatures between the two exhaust ports. This simulation was the first part of a multiphysics analysis. The linear static-stress analysis predicted thermal stresses well beyond the material's yield point between the two exhaust ports, especially on the inner face in the inset. Columbus, Ind., used multiphysics FEA software from Pittsburgh, to study the thermal and structural behavior of a prototype diesel-engine cylinder head designed for lower heat rejection and increased power density. In the prototype, temperatures on a stainlesssteel cylinder head were measured at 1,600°F, almost twice the normal operating temperature of 800 to 900°F. Distortion of the cylinder head at such high temperatures was causing leaks in valve inserts and the head gasket. Finite-element analysis was needed to evaluate the head's design and materials, and verify that high temperatures were, in fact, causing the leaks. Vishwas Bantanahal, an engineer at Adiabatics, began with a Pro/E model of the cylinder head and six washers under the bolt heads. He used the FEA developer's InCAD to capture the geometry and create a 3D finite-element mesh. “This direct CAD to CAE data exchange is easier than other methods, such as an intermediate file format,” he says. Small holes and cuts were suppressed to prevent stress concentrations and for a better understanding of the overall stress distribution. Bantanahal also refined the mesh around the holes and fillets. The model was set up for a steady-state heattransfer analysis. AISI 410, a stainless steel, was specified for the cylinder head and carbon steel for the washers. Bantanahal modeled the washers as well
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Finite Element Analysis Software
Finite element analysis software (FEA) uses a numerical technique to model and analyze complex structures by solving boundary-value problems. The structure to be analyzed is divided into points (elements) that make a grid called a mesh.
Mesh generators are software systems that generate a mesh in order to simulate a geometric field. They use various algorithms such as the finite element method (FEM).
Hydraulic cylinders are actuation devices that utilize pressurized hydraulic fluid to produce linear motion and force.
Air cylinders are pneumatic linear actuators that are driven by a pressure differential in the cylinder's chambers. They may be single-acting (with a spring return) or double-acting.
Spring washers, sometimes called disc springs, lend their mechanical capabilities to the unique profile of the material: the irregularities of the washer compress with a proportionate resistance to return to their predeflected shape. Spring washers are employed in applications where assemblies need a part to take up play, maintain assembly tension, compensate for expansion or contraction in materials, or to absorb intermittent shock loads and provide a controlled reaction under dynamic loads.
Topics of Interest
The most accurate finite-element analysis today models multiple physical properties interactively. Soon after computers entered the technology landscape, finiteelement analysis (FEA) emerged as a...
Fluid flowing around or through a component can cause significant displacement and stress. Forces exerted by fluid flow on fan blades are calculated during a steady fluidflow analysis (left). Analysis...
TV dramas about crime-scene investigations have brought greater awareness of forensic science. Stress results from an Algor FEA model of the compressor head cover indicate unevenly torqued bolts...
Creating a mathematical model from a CAD model requires first defining the geometry, loads, and restraints along with a type of analysis, such as linear static or transient thermal. Doing so brings...
General-purpose FEA is well suited for the dozens of unexpected analysis tasks a company encounters everyday. But a few specialized jobs are more easily handled by focused programs. Choosing a type of...