By Christina Galitsky, Ernst Worrell, Eric Masanet, and Sheng-chieh Chang, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division Whereas Part I of this article (" Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems Feb. 2006) focused on motors, drives and compressed air systems, Part II will review, briefly, potential improvements in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, overall building management and boilers. Research in this article was first published last September, in an extensive report developed by the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories for the Environmental Protection Agencys Energy Star Pharmaceutical Focus. The 90-page guide, Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry, is available in pdf format at The U.S. pharmaceutical industry spent nearly $900 million on energy in 2002. As energy costs increase, more companies are looking into energy efficiency measures (to view this table a one-page PDF click the Download Now button at the end of this article). Considered individually, each measure may offer small savings, but combined they add up to significant savings and short payback periods. First, lets consider HVAC systems, which consist of dampers, supply and exhaust fans, filters, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, heating and cooling coils, ducts, and various sensors . HVAC systems in manufacturing portions of facilities are closely supervised by the FDA and must meet other global regulatory standards, so energy efficiency measures that affect the work environment must conform to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). Although cGMP allows for new techniques, the reasons for using them must be explained the additional time required, and the risks associated with a delay in approval of building plans, may have led some drug companies to stick with less energy-efficient designs. Nevertheless, investing in newer technology frequently pays off.