Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations Part II: HVAC, Boilers and Cogeneration
By Christina Galitsky, Ernst Worrell, Eric Masanet, and Sheng-chieh Chang, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division Sizing chillers to better balance chiller load with demand is also an important energy efficiency strategy. At Genentechs facility in Vacaville, two 1,400-ton chillers and one 600-ton chiller were chosen instead of three equally-sized chillers. This selection was made in an effort to operate the chillers at as close to full load as possible, where they are most efficient. The two larger chillers are run at full load and the smaller chiller is run to supply additional cooling only on an as-needed basis, reducing energy needs. The cost savings associated with this chiller selection strategy were estimated to be $113,250 per year . A recent study found that HVAC systems accounted for 36-67% of cleanroom energy consumption . Another recent study  estimated the following energy distribution for cleanroom operation: 56% for cooling, 36% for heating, 5% for fans, and 3% for pumps. The following measures can improve energy efficiency in cleanrooms: Reduce recirculation air charge rates. Improve air filtration quality and efficiency. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and Ultra Low Penetration Air (ULPA) filters are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to filter make-up and recirculated air. The adoption of alternative filter technologies might allow for lower energy consumption. For example, new air filtration technologies that trap particles in the ultra-fine range (0.001-0.1 microns), a range for which current filter technologies are not effective, might reduce the energy necessary for reheating/re-cooling cleanroom air . In many instances, water cooling requirements can be met by cooling towers in lieu of water chillers. Water towers can cool water much more efficiently than chillers and can therefore reduce the overall energy consumption of cleanroom HVAC systems. The energy required to heat and cool cleanroom
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) chillers are refrigeration systems that provide cooling for industrial and commercial applications. They use water, oils or other fluids as refrigerants.
By Christina Galitsky, Sheng-chieh Chang, Ernst Worrell, and Eric Masanet, Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division Properly sized pipe diameters. Increasing diameters...