From Electronics I Laboratory Manual

A rectified voltage (or current) is a voltage with a DC value not equal to zero and without any change in polarity.  A pure sine wave has a DC (or average) value of zero because the signal positive voltage during the first half cycle (if the signal is positive) is exactly equal to the signal in the negative half cycle.

A rectifier is a circuit that normally takes as input a signal with a DC value equal to zero, and returns as output a signal with a DC value not equal to zero and, more important, the output signal is either completely positive or completely negative.  This rectified signal does not have any change in sign (polarity).

A typical rectifier can be built with diodes and resistors.  Several arrangements are available depending on what kind of rectifier you want to have.  In general we find two broad types of rectifiers:  half-wave rectifiers (HWR) and full-wave rectifiers (FWR).

HWR
A half-wave rectifier
is a device that rectifies only a half cycle of the signal at the input.  For instance, Figure 7.1 shows a half-wave rectifier build with a resistor (normally called the load) and a PN diode.  In the figure the...


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Power Amplifiers
Power amplifiers deliver a specific amount of AC power to a load. They are used in audio frequency and radio frequency applications.
Gate Turn-off (GTO) Thyristors
Gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) are four-layer PNPN devices that act as switches, rectifiers, and voltage regulators. Like other thyristors, GTOs can be turned on by the application of a positive gate signal (g > 0); however, unlike other more conventional devices that can be turned off only at a zero crossing of current, GTOs can be turned off at any time by the application of a gate signal equal to zero.
Unijunction Transistors (UJT)
Unijunction transistors (UJT) are three-terminal devices that exhibit a negative resistance characteristic.
Diacs
Diacs are bi-directional diodes that switch AC voltages and trigger silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) and triacs. Except for a small leakage current, diacs do not conduct until the breakover voltage is reached.

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