From Electronics I Laboratory Manual

A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device that is extremely versatile.  In the modern world of today very seldom you will find an electronic device that in some way or another does not use a transistor.  Without the transistor the computers of today, the telecommunication devices, our defense systems, the entertainment systems, industrial processes, etc. could not be possible the way we know them.

There are many types of transistors available.  The main difference between them is in the way we construct them.  In this experiment we will study the first useful transistor constructed in the 1950s by engineers at Bell Laboratories.  They called this type of transistor the bipolar junction transistor or BJT.  It is built by joining together three pieces of semiconductor materials.  Because basically there are two types of semiconductor materials – the N- and the P-type, as you must know! – we can have two types of BJTs.  If we sandwich a piece of P-type material between two pieces of N-type material we produce the NPN BJT.  If, on the other hand, we put a piece of N-type material between two pieces of P-type material we have a PNP BJT transistor.  The current and voltage polarities...


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Gate Turn-off (GTO) Thyristors
Gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) are four-layer PNPN devices that act as switches, rectifiers, and voltage regulators. Like other thyristors, GTOs can be turned on by the application of a positive gate signal (g > 0); however, unlike other more conventional devices that can be turned off only at a zero crossing of current, GTOs can be turned off at any time by the application of a gate signal equal to zero.
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Unijunction transistors (UJT) are three-terminal devices that exhibit a negative resistance characteristic.
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Diacs are bi-directional diodes that switch AC voltages and trigger silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) and triacs. Except for a small leakage current, diacs do not conduct until the breakover voltage is reached.

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