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Help with Antennas specifications:

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   Aerospace / Military       Antennas suitable for military, aircraft or other governmental applications typically meet more stringent additional military, government or aerospace specifications for the required operating altitude, shock, vibration, EMC/EMI or temperature ranges.  Utilization of a radome or protective coating on the antenna would be more common for these types of applications. 
   Air Traffic Control       Antennas for use with air traffic control systems and used to monitor airplanes. This antenna can be omnidirectional, or may be directional and designed to rotate. The primary method of most air traffic control systems uses surveillance radar with a rotating antenna to scan the sky. 
   Cellular / PCS Base Station       Land or fixed station in a mobile or wireless communications or cellular system consisting of one or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment. The base stations send and receive transmissions from the mobile or hand held units with a cell and forward these signals on to the local phone network.  Tower or building mounted panel or sector antennas are commonly applied for cell sites.  Concealment is often required so the antenna blends in with the surrounding community. 
   Broadband Network / WLAN       Antennas suitable for a radio data link, wireless modem for connection to the internet or a wireless local area network (WLAN) such as networks based on IEEE 802.11 or Wi-Fi interfaces.  Also, antennas capable of the high bandwidth transmission required for wireless broadband networks. 
   Cellular / PCS Terminal       Mobile or hand held portable terminal units for cellular, PCS or cordless phone systems.  Typically require a compact, retractable or internal antenna. 
   Dual Band / Multi-band       Antennas with the capability to efficiently transmit or receive signals at multiple frequencies or bands.  Adjustments to antenna length or geometry along with the appropriate resonators or matching networks can tune an antenna to the appropriate frequency.  Band or frequency adjustments can be made through capacitive electrical adjustments. 
   GPS       Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based global navigation system that consists of a constellation of 24 satellites in orbit 11,000 nmi above the Earth and a ground-based control segment. The satellites transmit signals that are used for extremely accurate three-dimensional (latitude, longitude, and elevation) global navigation (position determination), and for the dissemination of precise time. GPS-derived position determination is based on the arrival times. 
   High Frequency       Antennas designed for high frequency applications.   The high frequency band or HF band falls between 3 MHz and 30 MHz Shortwave or HAM radio antennas are specific high frequency antenna applications.  Dipole, rhombic, inverted V, log periodic and delta antenna technologies are commonly used for high frequency applications. 
   Marine / Shipboard       Marine applications such as wireless communications systems, GPS/navigational instruments or control centers on boats, ships, or offshore oil rigs.  Equipment generally would have to meet more severe NEMA or IEC Ingress Protection (IP) rating for marine applications. NEMA 4, 4X or IEC IP x6x provides a higher rating for water ingress protection. Utilization of a radome or protective coating on the antenna would be more common for these types of applications. 
   Microcell / Picocell       Antennas for the transmitters or receivers serving small cells.  Microcells or picocells may be used to provide additional coverage in an overloaded cell or within a building that is normally inaccessible by the external cell system. 
   RF Survey / Test       RF testing or surveying requires a test antenna of known performance characteristics used in determining transmission characteristics of communications equipment and associated propagation paths. RF surveying is also used in the design of cellular sites or base stations and to assure RF radiation levels from equipment do not exceed regulatory requirements.  
   RFID       An RFID antenna is the conductive element that enables an RFID tag to send and receive data. Passive tags usually have a coiled antenna that couples with the coiled antenna of the reader to form a magnetic field. The tag draws power from this field. 
   Satellite / Satcom       Antennas for earth or space based stations.  Artificial earth satellites or space based stations that relay signals to and from earth based stations or mobile units.  Some satellites passively reflect signals while other satellite communication systems contain transponders that consist of an automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency.  Similar types of antennas would also be utilized in radio astronomy applications. 
   Telemetry / Surveillance       Antennas designed for telemetry or surveillance applications.  Telemetry transmitters and receivers are data acquisition components used to gather information from remote locations via wireless communication.  In surveillance applications, the antenna transmits the acquired video, audio or data signals back to a receiver or receiving post for review. 
   Troposcatter       Also known as tropospheric scattering.  The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a result of irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties of the troposphere. 
   SMR / Trunking       Specialized mobile radio (SMR) or trunking is the mutual sharing of a small number of communication paths by a large number of users. Channels are switched between different users as needed in a trunked radio system. Trunked systems provide a private and secure wireless communications system.  
   TV / Radio Broadcasting       Antennas suitable for transmitting or receiving television, FM radio, AM radio, digital audio (DAB) or other broadcasting signals. Television broadcasting systems typically utilize horizontal polarization.  FM radio antennas typically utilize vertical polarization. 
   Vehicular       Antennas for integration into automobiles, locomotives, material handling vehicles, trucks or off-road vehicles for computer/internet access, navigational / GPS system access, vehicle or equipment control or other applications.  Shock and vibration resistance are of greater importance in these applications 
   Other       Other unlisted or specialized applications. 
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   Pattern Type:       
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   Omnidirectional       Antenna that radiates equal power in all directions in a horizontal plane. 
   Directional       Bi-directional or uni-directional antennas. A bi-directional antenna radiates most of its power in two directions. A uni-directional antenna radiates most of its power in one direction. 
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   Polarization Type:      The direction of the electric lines in an electromagnetic or radio wave. The electric field or "E" plane determines the polarization or orientation of the radio wave.  In general, most antennas radiate with either linear or circular polarization.  For best performance, it is desirable to use an antenna with the same polarization on both ends of a communications path.
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   Circular       This classification also includes elliptical, right-hand-circular polarization (RHCP) and left-hand-circular polarization (LHCP). In a circular polarized antenna, the plane of polarization rotates in a circle making one complete revolution during one period of the wave.  A circular polarized wave radiates energy in both the horizontal and vertical planes and all planes in between. Circular polarization occurs where the horizontal and vertical components are equal but differ in phase by 90 degrees.  If the rotation is clockwise looking in the direction of propagation, the sense is called right-hand-circular polarization.  If the rotation is counterclockwise, the sense is called left-hand-circular polarization.  Circular polarization is most often used on satellite communications.  
   Linear       A linear polarized antenna radiates wholly in one plane containing the direction of propagation.  A linearly polarized radio wave is composed of a single electric field component and a plot of the polarization pattern traced by the wave would be a straight line.  A circularly polarized wave has two equal and orthogonal electric field components resulting in a circular trace.   
   Horizontal Linear       Horizontally polarized (linear) antennas have their electric field parallel to the Earth's surface.  Television transmissions in the USA use horizontal polarization.   Manmade radio noise is predominantly vertically polarized and the use of horizontal polarization should provide some discrimination against interference from noise.  
   Vertical Linear       An antenna is vertically polarized (linear) when its electric field is perpendicular to the Earth's surface.  An example of a vertical antenna is a broadcast tower for AM radio or the "whip" antenna on an automobile. 
   Left Hand Circular (LHCP)       If the rotation is counterclockwise, the sense is called left-hand-circular polarization (LHCP).  
   Right Hand Circular (RHCP)       If the rotation is clockwise looking in the direction of propagation, the sense is called right-hand-circular polarization (RHCP).  
   Elliptical       A type of circular polarization.  The difference, if any, between the maximum and the minimum peaks as the antenna is rotated through all angles, is called the axial ratio or ellipticity and is usually specified in decibels (dB).  If the axial ratio is near 0 dB, the antenna is said to be circular polarized.  If the axial ratio is greater than 1-2 dB, the polarization is often referred to as elliptical.  
   Slant 45 / Dual       Slant or oblique polarization occurs where the horizontal and vertical polarization components are equal and in phase. Slant polarization is another form of linear polarization where the electric field lies in a plane at 45 degrees to the horizontal.  A dual linear polarized antenna has a separate connector for each linear polarization component.  
   Horizontal + Vertical / Diversity       Antennas or antenna arrays that have the capability to provide simultaneous horizontal and vertical linear polarization. Sometimes referred to as diversity polarization where the two elements or antennas are utilized with orthogonal polarizations. An improvement in reception is obtained by combining the signals from the two elements.  This type of polarization is useful for reception from hand held or a mobile unit where the orientation or polarization of the radio signals from the mobile transmitting antenna varies. In some respects, polarization diversity provides the capabilities of two antennas in one. Space diversity, multiple antennas spaced appropriately, is a more traditional technique utilized to improve reception compared to dual polarization. 
   Other       Other unlisted or specialized polarization type. 
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Performance Specifications
   Primary Frequency Range:       The frequency range of the RF, microwave or other radio signals that the antenna is designed to efficiently collect or radiate. Frequency is the number of cycles per second or hertz that the radio signals or electromagnetic wave oscillates at. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Gain:       The ratio of the power required at the input of a loss-free reference antenna to the power supplied to the input of the given antenna to produce, in a given direction, the same field strength at the same distance usually in the direction of maximum radiation.  Antenna gain is normally expressed in decibels or dB.  Another three letter "x" (dBx) is added to indicate the type of reference antenna.
  • dBi - isotropic reference antenna
  • dBd - half-wave dipole reference antenna
  • dBg - linear conductor reference antenna
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   VSWR:       Voltage Standing Wave Ratio.  The ratio between the maximum and the minimum voltage along the transmission line. A perfectly matched system has a VSWR of 1.0:1, meaning that the measurements are the same at any point.  The voltage wave in the transmission line is due to both the incident of source wave as well as the reflected waves.  The impedance match determines the degree of reflection.  The impedances of the line and antenna should match to maximize energy and signal transfer from the line to the antenna.  The VSWR is usually stated at an impedance of 50 ohms because most wireless systems operate at 50 ohms and antennas are designed to match this impedance as closely as possible.  High values of VSWR can be harmful to the antenna, transmission line and radio equipment. 
   Search Logic:      All matching products will have a value less than or equal to the specified value.
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Physical Specifications
   Form Factor:       
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   External       Antennas that are attached or located externally to the radio transmitter, receiver, transceiver or waveguide.  The unit may be freestanding on the ground or mounted on a mast, tower, portable hand radio, building, vehicle or plane. 
   Internal / Chip       Internal antennas fit within the enclosure or case of the radio transmitter, receiver, transceiver or waveguide.  For example, a microstrip antenna may be in the formed onto the surface of a plastic case or on the printed circuit board.  Surface mount device (SMD) or "chip" antennas are mounted internally on the printed circuit board within the radio transmitter, receiver or transceiver product. Chip antennas are also known as embedded antennas, integral antennas, chip dielectric antennas or chip multiplayer antennas. 
   Portable / Mobile       Antennas that are not stationary or fixed.  Examples of portable or mobile antennas are antennas for hand held units, antennas mounted on vehicles, ships or planes and dish type antennas mounted on trailers. 
   Stationary / Fixed       Antennas designed for a fixed or stationary application such as a base station antenna or a satellite earth station antenna. 
   Retractable / Folding       Antennas that slide or folds within the radio unit's case. Also, antennas that slide or fold into a more compact shape for transport or storage such as an antenna aboard a vehicle, ship or spacecraft. 
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   Technology Type:       
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   Biconical / Discone       A specialized type of antenna consisting of two conical conductors, having a common axis and vertex, and extending in opposite directions with feed or excitation through the vertex.  When one of the cones is reduced to a plane, the antenna is called a discone.  Biconical antennas are also known as bicone or bowtie antennas. 
   Coil / Helix       An antenna where the conductor element is wrapped or wound around a cylinder, coiled into a flat spiral or in the form of a straight or conical helix.  Coil antennas can provide a more compact form compared to a whip or loop antenna, but electromagnetic characteristics will be altered and range reduced.  When the helix circumference is much smaller than one wavelength, the antenna radiates at right angles to the axis of the helix. When the helix circumference is one wavelength, maximum radiation is along the helix axis.  Other variations of helix antennas are volute helix, quadrifilar helix, helical or spiral antennas.  
   Dipole / Wire Antenna       Among the simplest and most common types or antennas.  The typical configuration for dipoles is a straight, center-fed, one-half wavelength antenna.  They are often utilized in conjunction with a dielectric coating to enhance radiation characteristics.  Many variations of wire antennas or dipoles are available:
  • Straight Wire or Dipole
  • Folded Dipole
  • Coil 
  • Magnetic Dipole or Loop (Circular, Square, Ellipse, Rhombus, Fan, Eggbeater, Rabbit Ear, etc.)
  • Inverted "L", Vee or "F"
  • PIFA (Planar Inverted "F" Antenna) 
  • Turnstile (or Crossed Dipoles)
  • Vertically Polarized Dipoles
  • Diversity Dipole
  • Helical (Volute and Quadrifilar Helix Antennas)
  • Sleeve Dipole
   Dish / Reflector       Antennas that consist of reflector backed arrays.  An active element in the focal point of the array radiates or receives signals that bounce off the reflector.  The reflector may consist of a solid dish, open grid or a plane.  Several variations exist such as corner, parabolic, dish, plane or patch, front fed parabolic, Cassegrain (rear fed parabolic) and spherical reflectors. 
   Horn / Aperture / Slot       Antennas that utilize diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by apertures. These are more sophisticated types of antennas utilized for high frequency applications; e.g., spacecraft, radio astronomy or to feed other types of antennas.  They can operate effectively with a dielectric coating. Feed horns, conical horns, rectangular waveguide apertures, slot antennas, slotted waveguides and pyramidal horns are types of antennas that fit into this area.  A lens horn antenna is another variation that utilizes lens elements to collimate divergent energy and prevent it from spreading in undesired directions.  Lens horn antennas are applied in secure military communication systems, short range / vehicle anti-collision radar, point-to-point radio links, antenna testing and radiation monitoring systems. 
   Log Periodic Array       A multi-element, unidirectional, narrow-beam antenna that has impedance and radiation characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic function of the excitation frequency.  The length and spacing of the elements of a log periodic antennas increase logarithmically from one end to the other.  Log periodic antennas are often utilized in broadband applications.  Log periodic antennas are also known as log periodic dipoles or log periodic antennas.  
   Loop       A common type of magnetic dipole antenna. Loop antennas can come in a variety of configurations circular loop, square, ellipse, rhombus, fan, eggbeater, etc.  Their electromagnetic characteristics make them suitable mainly for receiving antenna applications.  
   Microstrip       A typically low efficiency short radiating / receiving antenna, popular for its low profile. Microstrips are easily fabricated with printed circuit board techniques and can be made to conform to most surface profiles.  They can have an unlimited number of shapes and sizes.  When built using special dielectric materials, smaller than natural antennas can be realized that will fit small packages.  Microstrip antennas are also known as "band-aid", stripline, wrap-around, microstrip arrays, and patches or patch arrays. 
   Panel / Sector       An antenna or array that has multiple antenna elements to radiate or collect signals from different sectors in a cell.  A panel or sector panel antennas usually have a flat panel shape and are usually enclosed within a plastic radome to protect the elements and/or any electronics.  Panel antennas can use a microstrip-patch or planar array antenna or multiple dipoles.  The cell site can use several panel antennas or bays of panels as required providing coverage.  Microstrip or patch antennas are readily manufactured using printed circuit methods and feature good, linear polarized radiation patterns suitable for many mobile terminal applications.  Sub-wavelength, planar sector antennas include 1/4 wavelength and 1/2 wavelength patch antennas and the planar inverted F antenna (PIFA). 
   Array / Phased Array       An array is a collection of antenna elements (e.g., dipoles, slot, loops, and microstrips) that work together.  In a phased array, the beam direction or radiation pattern is controlled primarily by the relative phases of the excitation coefficients of the radiating elements. Parasitic and driven phased arrays are the two main variations. Parasitic arrays are a type of horizontally polarized, directional array. Parasitic phased arrays build upon the interactions of the elements in the array to enhance radiation characteristics.  A parasitic or passive directive element is not connected to a radio transmitter or receiver either directly or via a feeder, but is coupled to the driven element only by the fields.  Other types of parasitic phased arrays are possible such as Loop, Slot, Microstrip, Cavity and Hybrid Arrays.  Driven phased arrays utilize a phase shifter, a device for adjusting the phase of a particular field component at the output relative to the phase at the input. Several types of driven phased arrays are possible such as Collinear, Franklin, Curtain, Linear or 1D, Planar, Circular, 2D & 3D.  Planar array antenna has all of the active and parasitic elements in one plane.  A planar array provides a large aperture and may be used for directional beam control by varying the relative phase of each element. Phased array antennas are used in a variety of aerospace applications. 
   Smart / Adaptive       An antenna or array that has multiple antenna elements to radiate or collect signals from different sectors in a cell.  Smart, adaptive or intelligent antenna systems consist of a multi-sector antenna array with an integral signal processing capability to optimize the radiation pattern or reception pattern automatically.  For example, an intelligent antenna system could consist of two antennas that continually senses incoming radio signals and automatically selects the antenna best positioned to receive it. 
   Whip / Vertical Monopole       A whip antenna is a flexible rod antenna, usually between 1/10 and 5/8 wavelength long, supported on a base insulator.   These capacitive antennas or electric doublets are insulated from the structure (plane, car or other product) and the whole assembly radiates. The standard, wire monopole is probably the most widely used antenna on existing mobile telecommunication applications with the normal mode helix coming in a close second. The reason for the widespread use of wire monopoles and helices in mobile terminal applications is that whip antennas are simple and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. 
   Yagi or Yagi-Uda Array       A linear end-fire antenna or array, consisting of three or more half-wave elements (one driven, one reflector, and one or more directors).  A Yagi antenna or Yagi-Uda array offers very high directivity and gain. 
   Other Antennas & Arrays       Other simple, single element antennas or array antennas not listed such as lens antennas. Arrays or array antennas are an assembly of antenna elements designed such that the fields for the individual elements combine to produce a maximum intensity in a particular direction and minimum field intensities in other directions.  These arrays of radiating elements have three major configurations or element arrangements: linear, circular and planar arrays.  Depending on the type of elements combined and their arrangement, a wide variety of array antennas are possible such as dipole arrays, aperture arrays, slotted waveguide array and conical arrays. 
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   Meets Military / Aerospace Specifications?       Antennas qualified to aerospace or military specifications. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Lightning Protection?       Grounding straps or other features to protect against lightning strikes. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Radome / Dielectric Coating?       Protective dielectric coating or a dielectric shell (radome or radar domes) that encloses an antenna or array.  The principal purpose of a radome is to shield the antenna and associated equipment from the environment. Panel or sector antennas are usually enclosed within a radome to protect the elements and/or electronics.  This improves system availability since the antenna is not affected by winds, rain, or ice. Typical applications include antennas for radar, telemetry, tracking, cellular communications, surveillance, and radio astronomy.  Some signal loss occurs when a radome is used which can often be offset with proper design of the feed system and the directors.  The wind load on the antenna can be significantly increased by a radome enclosure.  A dielectric or ferrite coating on the surface of an antenna can alter electromagnetic characteristics, provide electrical insulation and protect the antenna from the environment. Some ferrite or dielectric ceramic coatings can allow certain antenna designs to be reduced in height or size while providing acceptable radiation characteristics. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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   Operating Temperature:       Full required range of ambient operating temperature. 
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