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Hardness Testers:

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   Hardness Testers:       
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   Brinell       Widely used on castings and forgings, the Brinell test method applies a predetermined test force to a carbide ball of fixed diameter that is held for a predetermined time and then removed. The diameter of the indentation width is measured twice - usually at right angles to each other and averaged. A formula or chart is then used to convert the averaged measurements to a Brinell hardness number. Test forces usually range from 500-to-3000 kilograms (occasionally down to 1kg in less frequently used tests). Carbide Brinell indenters are 10mm in diameter, although there are less frequently used tests with light loads and smaller diameter indenters (from 5mm to 1mm). Generally, the Brinell tester load must be held for 10 - 15 seconds although in practice shorter dwell times are often used if it is known not to influence the test result. The Brinell test measurement is typically done to the nearest 0.05mm using a standard 20X Brinell scope. This measurement is subject to operator influence. 
   Durometer       Durometers are instruments used for measuring the indentation hardness of rubber, elastomers, plastics, and foam materials. 
   Dynamic Rebound       In dynamic rebound or impact harder testers, a hammer or diamond tipped probe is dropped onto a sample and the rebound height or velocity change is measured and converted into a hardness reading. The rebound height increases with increasing hardness. The tests are less destructive than conventional static indentation tests and applied where even a small indent on a surface cannot be tolerated; e.g., forged rolls for printing. Dynamic rebound tests are also known as scleroscopes. 
   Nanoindentation       Nanoindentation coating hardness testers use indentation, scratching, or rubbing tests to evaluate the hardness or wear resistance of thin films of paint, sealants, adhesives, vapor deposits, CVD/PVD deposits or plated layers. Barber Coleman's Barcol ImpressorTM, Persoz and Koenig pendulum hardness testers (ASTM 4366) or Bucholz indentation testers are types of instruments used to evaluate coating hardness.  Sclerometer type testers measure the pressure required to produce a scratch in a material. Nanoindentation instruments provide a powerful tool for researchers exploring the surface and microstructural nature of materials on a nanometer scale. Nanoindentation instruments can determine properties such as hardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness and other mechanical properties at an atomic scale. Mapping can be utilized to determine variations in hardness between different phases or across phase or grain boundaries. 
   Rockwell       The Rockwell test method is defined in ASTM E-18 and is the most commonly used hardness tester operation method since it is generally easier to perform and more accurate than other types of hardness testing. Rockwell testers can be used on all metals except in conditions where the test metal structure or surface conditions would introduce too much variation, where the indentations would be too large for the application or where the sample size or shape prohibits its use. The Rockwell tester method measures the permanent depth of indentation produced by a force on an indenter. First, a preliminary test force, also called pre-load or minor load, is applied to a sample using a diamond indenter. This is the zero or reference position that breaks through the surface to reduce the effects of surface finish, sinking/ridging, deflection of machine components and elastic recovery. Then, an additional test force or major load is applied to reach the total required test force. This force is held for a predetermined amount of time to allow for elastic recovery of the metal. The additional test force is then released and the final position is measured against the preliminary position and converted to a hardness number. 
   Vickers and Knoop       Vickers and Knoop hardness testers can be used for micro and macro hardness testing. Loads are typically very light, ranging from a few grams to one or several kilograms, although "macro" Vickers loads can range up to 30 kg or more.  The microhardness testing operation according to ASTM E-384 specifies a range of loads between 1 to 1000 gf.  There are two types of indenters, a square base pyramid-shaped diamond for testing in a Vickers tester and a narrow rhombus-shaped indenter for a Knoop tester. The micro-hardness methods are used to test on metals, ceramics, and composites - almost any type of material. Since the test indentation is very small, the microhardness testing is useful for a variety of applications: testing very thin materials like foils or measuring the surface of a part, small parts or small areas, measuring individual microstructures, or measuring the depth of case hardening by sectioning a part and making a series of indentations to describe a profile of the change in hardness. The Knoop method is commonly used when indentations are closely spaced or testing is close to the edge of a specimen due to the narrow shape of the indentation. Metallographic sample preparation is usually necessary in order to provide a specimen that can fit into the tester, make a sufficiently smooth surface to permit a regular indentation shape and good measurement with a microscope. The indentations should be as large as possible to maximize the measurement resolution. (Error is magnified as indentation sizes decrease) The test procedure is subject to problems of operator influence on the test results, although automated units are available. 
   Ultrasonic       In ultrasonic hardness testers, a probe tip with an indenter is piezoelectrically resonated at an ultrasonic frequency. The probe is held against the sample with a spring and a small indentation is made. The frequency of the probe changes in proportion to the contact area of the indentation. The tester measures the frequency change, then calculates and displays the equivalent hardness value. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary hardness tester. 
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   Test Method:       
   Your choices are...         
   Macro       Macro testing refers to Vickers, Knoop, or similar testing with loads over 1000 grams as well as Rockwell, Rockwell Superficial or Brinell testing.  
   Micro       Micro testing refers to Vickers, Knoop, or similar testing with loads less than 1000 grams. 
   Superficial       Rockwell test method using 15 to 45 kg test loads for thin gauge materials. The Rockwell N, T, W, X and Y scales apply for superficial testing. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary test method. 
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Mounting
   Mounting       
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   Handheld or Portable       The tester is designed to be operated while being held in the hand or easily portable for field use. 
   Fixtured or Permanent       The unit is designed to be mounted on a test stand. 
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Test Specifications
   Test Load:       The load that is applied to a sample through the indenter to produce an indentation, a scratch or a rebound. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Vertical Capacity         
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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