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Surface Metrology:

Measurement Capability:

Standards Compliance:

Technology:

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Bore / ID Analysis?

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Help with Surface Metrology Equipment specifications:

Surface Metrology
           
   Your choices are...         
   Form Measurement       Form gages and contour measuring machines are used to inspect parameters such as roundness, angularity, squareness, straightness, flatness, runout, taper, and concentricity. 
   Surface Profilometry       Surface profilometers measure surface profiles, roughness, waviness and other finish or surface texture parameters by scanning a mechanical stylus across the sample, or through noncontact methods. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Measurement Capability       
   Your choices are...         
   2D / Line Profiles       Instruments can capture a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile, or measure the 2D parameters of a surface.  
   3D / Areal Topography       Instruments can capture a three-dimensional (3D) or areal profile, or measure the 3D parameters of a surface. 
   Coaxiality       Coaxiality is a measure of one axis to another axis. There are two different, established methods: DIN and ISO. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) is a German national organization for standardization. ISO is the International Standards Organization. The DIN Coaxiality method uses the diameter of a cylinder of defined length. The cylinder's axis is co-axial to the datum axis that completely encloses the centroids of the planes which form the cylinder axis under evaluation. The ISO Coaxiality method uses the diameter of a cylinder that is coaxial with the datum axis, and that just encloses the axis of the cylinder under evaluation. 
   Cylindricity       Instruments can measure the cylindricity of components. In a perfect cylinder, all of the points on the surface or on the surface or revolution are equidistance from the central axis. Because a cylinder-shaped part can be skewed or otherwise distorted along its axis, cylindricity and roundness cannot be checked solely through diameter measurements. An ISO standard for the measurement of cylindricity is under development. 
   Defects / ADC       Instruments with the ability to detect residual traces of films or depressions (dimple defects) or patterned conductor or pad flaws on the surface of a substrate or wafer after polishing, CMP, etching, or other processes. Instruments with automatic defect classification (ADC) have image processors and software algorithms that can determine the type of defect on a wafer or device. 
   Differential / Taper       Instruments are capable of difference measurements required for differential and taper attribute assessment. Taper is a narrowing or differential variation of diameter along the axial or length dimension of a cylindrical part. 
   Flatness       Flatness places all of the points on a part's surface within a single plane. Flatness is often quantified by comparing a part's surface to a reference plane or optical flat. Typically, a least-squares reference or centerline plane is used. The areas above and below the reference plane are equal, and kept to a minimum separation. The highest peak-to-valley normal measurement provides an indication of part flatness. Flatness can also be analyzed with the minimum zone calculation method. The surface data to be analyzed is enclosed by two parallel planes with only minimal separation. The level of flatness or flatness error is then indicated by the amount of separation between the two planes. Roundness systems are also used to measure the flatness of upper or lower surfaces. They rotate the gauge so that the stylus deflection is in a vertical direction. 
   Eccentricity / Concentricity       Eccentricity is a ratio describing the shape of a conic section. The ratio of the distance between the foci to the length of the major axis provides a measure of eccentricity. For example, a circle could be described as an ellipse with zero eccentricity. Eccentricity is a vector term with magnitude and direction used to describe the position of the center of a profile relative to some datum point. Concentricity is twice the eccentricity and is the diameter of a circle traced by the component center orbiting about the datum axis. A part or part feature is concentric to another part in an assembly or part feature if they share the same center, common axis, or origin.  
   Harmonics       Round or cylindrical parts can be evaluated for their harmonic content with Fourier analysis. Any surface can be broken down into its individual harmonic elements. The ability to analyze harmonics is very useful in order to predict a component’s function, or to control the process by which a component is manufactured. Harmonic content or shape variations are repeated undulations occurring in a 360° rotation. Harmonic frequencies are usually described in undulations per revolution (UPR). Different orders, wavelengths or Fourier coefficients of harmonic content can occur in parts. For example, a third harmonic has three undulations of equal wavelength in 360°.  Lower-order harmonics have a large enough magnitude to contribute to form measurements. Undulations from 2 to 15 are referred to as lobing coefficients. Harmonic variations at the surface-texture level are also seen at values of 15 UPR or more.  
   Hybrid Parameters       Instrument can measure or provide hybrid parameters, which are combinations of spacing and amplitude parameters. 
   Lay / Pattern       Instrument is capable of detecting patterns or lay of a surface. Lay is a surface texture with a predominant directional pattern due to machining, grinding, or other processes. 
   Parallelism       Parallelism describes the equidistance between two planes or surfaces of a part. The taper measurements of a cylinder provide an indication of the cylinder's parallelism. Taper or cylinder parallelism is evaluated using two least-squares lines constructed through the vertical sides of the profile. 
   Roundness       Ideal roundness is the condition in which all parts of a circle are identical or equidistant from the center point or axis. Out-of-roundness is the radial deviation of the actual profile from ideal roundness. Roundness is measured using the minimum radius separation (MRS), least-squares center (LSC) and minimum inscribed circle (MIC) methods. In the MRS method, roundness is measured by assessing the separation of two concentric circles perpendicular to the part’s surface that just contains the measured surface. In the LSC method, a theoretical least-squares circle and center are compared to the actual part surface. In the MIC method, the smallest circle that will just contain the measured profile is constructed, and the profile center of this minimum inscribed circle is determined.  Roundness measurements are used to evaluate and control the quality of shafts, bearings, cylinders, or other precision components. Roundness variations or out-of-roundness are measured by determining the maximum inward deviations of the part’s profile from the minimum inscribed circle. 
   Runout       Runout is measured by determining the radial difference between two concentric reference circles drawn to just enclose the profile of the part or cylindrical surface under evaluation. The inner reference circle coincides with the nearest point or deepest valley on the profile. The outer reference circle coincides with the farthest point or highest valley on the profile. Runout is also known as total indicating reading (TIR), the full indicator movement as measured around the circumference of a roll or cylindrical part at any given point along the length of the part. The runout parameter combines the effect of form error and concentricity to give a predicted performance when rotated about a datum. Runout analysis is useful in the analysis of rotating machinery components such as shafts, bearings, spindles, and hard-disk-drive (HDD) motors. Both the non-periodic and periodic components of the runout signal should be quantified for a complete analysis. 
   Roughness Parameters (Ra, RMS / Rq, Rz, etc.)       Instrument can measure roughness profile or provide roughness parameters such as roughness average (Ra), root mean square roughness (RMS / Rq), roughness height (Rz). Roughness profiles are the finer scale surface variations that remain after form and waviness variations have been filtered out of the raw profile. Examples of roughness parameters include: Ra, Rq, Rt, Rp, Ry, Rku, Rsk, RSm, Rz, Rλq, RTp, RHTp, Rlo, RΔq, RPC, RzJIS, and R3z. 
   Squareness / Angularity       The surface or line feature of a part is square if the surface is a right angle to a reference line or plane. Squareness or perpendicularity is a measure of variation of the part's surface from a 90° angle to the reference surface.  Squareness can be measured by determining the deviation of the part's surface from two enclosing reference planes that are 90° to a reference plane or datum axis. Angularity can be measured by determining the deviation of the part's surface from two enclosing reference planes that are a particular angle to a reference plane or datum axis. Angle gages, angle gage blocks, squares and protractors are used to assess angles or squareness, but not with the same degree of accuracy as form metrology equipment. 
   Spacing Parameters (PC, Sm)       Spacing parameters measure the horizontal or lateral peak-and- valley variations of a profile along the surface. Instruments can measure or provide spacing parameters such as peak count (Pc) or peak spacing average (Sm). Other spacing parameters include: Pc, peak density, peak spacing, S, Sm, summits, summit density, summit spacing, valleys, valley density, and valley spacing. 
   Step Height       Instruments are capable of step-height dimensional measurements of sample features or deposited films. 
   Straightness       Straightness places all of the points of an edge or feature within a single line. If a line or surface feature of a part is equidistant to a reference line, then the part feature is straight. The deviations in distance between two planes or part surfaces are measured to determine parallelism. Straightness can be measured using the minimum zone or least-squares methods.   With a least-squares method, a reference or centerline is fitted to the surface or feature. The areas above and below the reference line are equal and kept to a minimum separation. The highest peak-to-valley measurement normal to a least-squares reference line provides an indication of part straightness. Straightness can also be analyzed by the minimum zone calculation method. The surface data to be analyzed is enclosed by two parallel lines with a minimal separation. The level of straightness or straightness error is indicated by the amount of separation between the two lines. 
   Thickness       Instruments are capable of dimensional measurements of sample or film thickness. 
   Waviness Parameters (Wa,Wt )       Instruments can measure or provide waviness parameters such as waviness average (Wa) or waviness height (Wt). Waviness is a variation of the surface on a larger scale or wavelength than surface roughness, but at a shorter wavelength or scale than form variations. Surface texture consists of a combination of waviness and roughness variations. The roughness profile is superimposed on the waviness variations. Examples of waviness parameters include: Wa, Wq, Wt, Wp, Wv, Wku, Wsk, WSm, Wz, WzJIS, Wλq, WΔq, WTp, WHTp, WLo, WPC, and W3z. 
   Warp / Bow       Instruments are capable of bow and warp measurements of thin samples, substrates, wafers, or discs. Bow in a water or thin sample is a distortion perpendicular to the surface from a straight, flat plane. Warp is a twisting variation of a part's surface from a straight, flat plane. 
   Specialty / Custom       Instruments can measure or provide other unlisted or custom parameters for a particular industry application. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Standards Compliance       
   Your choices are...         
   ASME       Instruments provide ASME surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) requirements and related procedures such as ASME B46.1. 
   ISO / EN       Instruments provide ISO surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with International Standards Organization (ISO) or Euronorm (EN) requirements and related procedures such as ISO 4287:1997. 
   DIN       Instruments provide DIN surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with standards from Deutsches Institut für Normung, a German organization for standardization. In many cases, the DIN standards system has been replaced by ISO or EN standards. 
   JIS       Instruments provide JIS surface texture parameters. Profile measurements, filtering, and data processing are defined in accordance with Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialty, or proprietary standards. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Technology
           
   Your choices are...         
   Contact / Stylus Based       Contact or stylus-based instruments measure surface texture by dragging a sharp, pointed tool across the surface. Height variations of the tip are recorded and then used to form a texture profile of the surface. Roughness and waviness parameters are also calculated from the profile data. Typically, contact devices can provide only a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile. 
   Non-contact - Optical / Laser       Non-contact instruments measure surface texture by optically scanning a surface with a light or laser. Optical or light-based instruments may also use triangulation or interferometry to measure or capture a surface profile. Typically, non-contact devices can provide a two-dimensional (2D) or line profile, as well as three-dimensional (3D) or areal topography measurements. 2D or 3D roughness and waviness parameters are calculated from the profile data. 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary technologies. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Industrial Applications
           
   Your choices are...         
   Aerospace / Defense       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of aerospace or defense products. 
   Automotive       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of automotive or vehicular products. 
   Coatings (Thin Films, Plating, etc.)       Instruments are designed or suitable for measurements of coatings, plated layers, spray deposits, or thin films. Coating parameters and measured features can include coating thickness, thickness variations, roughness, texture, and coating defects. 
   Displays / FPD       Instruments measure or monitor flat panel display (FPD) thin film processes or resulting surfaces. 
   Electronics       Instruments measure or monitor the surfaces of electronic components such as printed circuit boards (PCB), electrical contacts, or other electrical devices. 
   Mechanical Parts (Bearings, Shafting)       Instruments are designed or suitable for assessing mechanical components such as bearings, bushings, shafting, spindles, seals, cams and crankshafts, gears, and splined or keyed shafts. 
   Medical       Instruments are designed to measure surfaces and coatings of implants, prostheses, medical devices, surgical tools, and other biotechnology products, or to enhance and/or assure compatibility, functionality, and quality in medical applications. 
   MEMS       Instruments are designed for measuring micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices, sensors, and components. 
   Nanomaterials       Instruments are designed for research or measurement of material structures, powder, fibers, thin films, or electronic circuits in the nanometer (10-9 meter) range (<100 nm). 
   Optics / Photonics       Instruments are used for the inspection or process monitoring of optical or photonic components, optical thin films, and surfaces such as lenses, optical fibers, masks, anti-reflective coatings, and reflective films. 
   Precision Machining / Grinding       Instruments are designed or suitable for measuring or monitoring product manufacturing in precision machining and grinding facilities. 
   Semiconductor Manufacturing       Instruments are designed for suitable for the inspection or metrology of bare wafers made of silicon or other materials.  These instruments check for warp, bow, flatness, total thickness variations (TTV), roughness, waviness variations, and other defects. 
   Storage Media       Instruments are used to measure or monitor thin films or surfaces produced for memory or data storage components such as magnetic media, optical drive disks, or read/write heads. 
   Wear / Tribology       Instruments are designed or suitable for measuring wear features, and for performing evaluations for wear studies. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Factory / Production Use       Large, floor mounted vacuum deposition systems designed for high volume factory use or processing large components. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Bore / ID Analysis       Instrument has the ability to measure profiles on internal, bore, or ID surfaces. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Features
   Mounting / Loading:       
   Your choices are...         
   Benchtop       Devices are benchtop or table-based. The part is both manually loaded and measured. 
   Floor / Free Standing       Floor-mounted and free-standing instruments are larger units dedicated to a specific inspection or analysis task in production or research applications. 
   Handheld / Portable       Handheld or portable instruments can be lifted and moved to a location for measuring parts on the plant floor, or on the surfaces of large machines in the field.  
   Machine Mounted       Products are designed to be mounted on or within a machine tool or production line device for tool setup, continuous measurement, and/or process monitoring. Typically, parts are presented automatically or semi-automatically to the surface metrology head. 
   Other       Other unlisted mounting or loading system. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Display & Special Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Analog Meter       Data is displayed with an analog meter or simple visual indicator. 
   Computer Interface / Networkable       The instrument can be connected to a network or personal computer (PC) for transfer of data or test control. 
   Digital Readout       Device uses numerical or application-specific displays. 
   FFT Analysis       Instruments can perform fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. FFT analysis is useful in detecting periodic noise or harmonics in a profile. The FFT algorithm quickly computes the digital form of the Fourier transform. Fourier transforms are very useful in processing and analyzing spectra, signals, and profiles. 
   SPC / Software Capability       Instruments have integral or optional statistical process control (SPC) software or SPC software capabilities. 
   Power Spectrum Density (PSD)       Instruments can perform power spectrum density (PSD) or frequency analysis. PSD methods are used to monitor process changes in optical manufacturing, such as the effects of tool wear, tool chatter, and feed rate. 
   Video / Graphic Display       Data is presented in video format via cathode ray tubes (CRT), liquid crystal displays (LCD), or other multi-line forms. 
   Other       Other unlisted display types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Environment
   Operating Temperature       This is the full required range of ambient operating temperatures. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the limits in a "From - To" range; when both are specified, matching products will cover entire range. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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