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Type
   Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Buffing       Buffing compounds are used to refine and smooth a surface to improve its appearance. Buffing can produce a satin, brush, or shiny mirror-finish. Often, buffing is accomplished through off-hand processes where a hand-held part is presented to a buff or buffing wheel that is loaded with buffing compounds. Automated buffing processes are also available. They use coil, continuous web, conveyor, or robotic systems. 
   Chemical Finishing       Chemical finishing compounds, additives, or solutions enhance or modify a substrate's finish by chemically attacking or converting the surface material. Certain chemicals can convert a surface layer into a softer phosphate layer that is easily abraded away in a mass-finishing system. Chemically active compounds, agents or additives can accelerate the finishing process while preserving part geometry. Some acidic or alkaline products accelerate the finishing process by chemically corroding or dissolving the part's surface. Specialized non-abrasive chemical agents are also available for electropolishing or chemical polishing processes. Mechanical or abrasive processes can impart additional residual surface stress and damage into parts through the creation of dislocations, micro-cracks, pits, scratches and phase transformations. Chemical finishing processes can actually remove the damaged layers and mechanical-finishing artifacts. Chemical finishing processes provide a uniform or isotropic surface. 
   Cleaning / Surface Preparation       Cleaning and surface preparation products are finishing compounds that are formulated for cleaning, degreasing, de-oiling, descaling, texturing, roughening, discoloration removal, and other surface preparation applications. Cleaning compounds often have a higher or lower pH (mildly alkaline or acidic) than pure polishing or color buffing compounds. Cleaning compounds may also contain detergents, surfactants and/or soaps. 
   CMP / Wafer Planarization       Chemical mechanical planarization or polishing (CMP) combines chemical attack with mechanical or abrasive removal to planarize and polish a surface. Typically, CMP compounds or products are available as slurries, dispersions or powders. CMP slurries or CMP dispersions are used in conjunction with CMP pads or polishing naps, which are rotated and held against a substrate or wafer surface. CMP slurries or CMP dispersions are used to planarize wafers, optical substrates, disk-drive components and other critical microelectronic surfaces. Wafer planarization produces a silicon substrate or semiconductor wafer with a flat, uniform surface, thereby eliminating surface roughness or form variations that would hinder chip fabrication and detract from device performance. During the semiconductor fabrication process, many different layers or materials (e.g., conductive, barrier, dielectric, semiconducting) are deposited and etched or patterned. Dishing can occur during wafer or chip fabrication sequences, and results in poor-patterned deposit quality. Often, CMP processes are applied between these depositions and patterning processing-steps to prevent dishing, remove excess materials, and maintain flatness and patterned wafer quality.  CMP processes are essential to the damascene copper interconnect used in high-performance microprocessors. Fumed silica abrasive-based CMP compounds are used in semiconductor or silicon-wafer polishing and planarization applications. A pure silica CMP compound does not impart poisons or impurities into the wafer fab process. Typically, fumed or amorphous silica abrasives are chosen because crystalline silica is considered to be a carcinogen. Alumina, ceria and zirconia slurries are also used for the polishing or planarization of copper, conductor, oxide, nitride, barrier, and dielectric layers.  
   Color Buffing       Color buffing compounds are less aggressive than cutting compounds. They bring out a surface's luster and natural color, and/or brightly polish a material. 
   Cutting Compound       Cutting or cut buffing compounds are more aggressive than color buffing compounds. Cutting compounds are used in roughing applications, and to remove scratches, digs or high spots. Color buffing compounds are used after cut compounds to bring out the luster or polish in a material's surface. Cut and buff compounds provide a combination of cutting and buffing action. For example, cut and buff compounds are available that provide 75% cut and 25% buff, 50% cut and 50% buff, or 20% cut and 80% buff. 
   Extrusion / Flow Honing       Extrusion or flow-honing compounds are abrasive compounds with a consistency of putty or clay. They are forced across part surfaces or through part holes or openings to polish and debur. Flow honing or abrasive flow machining (AFM) passes a mixture of abrasive grain and high-viscosity carrier media through a part’s inner diameter (ID) or internal openings. AFM processes are used to debur, polish and generate controlled-radius geometry in components. Orbital AFM is used for external finishing and geometry control. Micro-AFM is used to radius, debur and improve the surface finishes of orifices in nozzles, fuel injectors, spray tips and other parts with very small or micro-sized holes. 
   Grinding       Grinding compounds are very aggressive. They usually contain abrasive particles that range from medium to coarse. Grinding compounds are used for rapid fast-metal or stock removal rates and heavy descaling applications. 
   Lapping       Lapping slurries or pastes are used to produce precision surfaces with controlled surface-finish and form characteristics. Surface finish characteristics can include average surface roughness (Ra), rms surface roughness (Rrms, Rz), peak count, bearing area, and several other roughness parameters. Surface form characteristics can include flatness, warp or bow, waviness and several other form parameters. Lapping products are usually specified by type of abrasive, abrasive grain grit size, and vehicle type. Lapping abrasive grits include aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond and garnet. Average grit sizes vary from 0.25 to over 100 microns. Vehicles can be water or water-based, oil or grease-based, solvents or synthetic fluids.  Lapping compounds are used to finish the surfaces of critical components such as hardened precision shafts, gears, tools, tooling, valve seats, mechanical seals (seal faces), bearing races, bearing balls, dimensional gage or gauge parts, surface plates, optical products, surface plates, spacers, and many industrial products. 
   Mass Finishing (Vibratory, Tumbler)       Mass finishing (vibratory, tumbler) compounds are used in conjunction with media or balls in mass finishing equipment such as tumblers or vibratory finishers. Mass finishing compounds include deburring compounds, burnishing compounds, cleaning or degreasing compounds, and descaling compounds. They can be abrasive, non-abrasive, or chemically active. Chemically active compounds, agents, or additives can accelerate the finishing process while preserving part geometry.  Deburring compounds remove sharp edges or burrs from parts. They are also used to remove sharp corners, parting lines or flash. Deburring compounds provide fast, aggressive cutting action. Burnishing compounds are usually mildly acidic and react with the component being tumbled, vibrated or mass finished. Burnishers produce a bright, lustrous finish. Typically, burnishing compounds are used with steel or other metal media. Consequently, corrosion inhibitors are a constituent of some burnisher compounds. Burnishing compounds can be used also with ceramic media. Additional additives include lubricants or lubricity agents, foam-controlling additives, waxes or oils, and cleaning agents or soaps. 
   Polishing       Polishing compounds, pastes or creams contain very fine abrasives as well as waxes or oils. Polishing compounds produce highly lustrous, bright and buffed surfaces. Specialized non-abrasive chemical agents are also available for electropolishing or chemical polishing processes. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, proprietary or specialized types of finishing compounds. 
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Products / Materials Finished
           
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum       Compounds are formulated or designed for finishing aluminum.  Aluminum is a bluish, silver-white, malleable, ductile, light, trivalent, metallic element with good electrical and thermal conductivity, high reflectivity, and resistance to oxidation. 
   Cast Iron       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing cast iron alloys. Iron is a heavy, malleable, ductile, magnetic, silver-white, metallic element used to as an alloying element in cast irons. The term "cast iron" refers not to a single material, but to a family of alloys whose major constituent is iron, with important additions of carbon and silicon. Cast irons are natural composite materials whose properties are determined by their microstructures - the stable and metastable phases formed during solidification or subsequent heat treatment. The major microstructural constituents of cast irons are the chemical and morphological forms taken by carbon, and the continuous metal matrix in which the carbon and/or carbide are dispersed. 
   Ceramics / Glass       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for ceramics and the grinding and finishing of glass. 
   Chrome / Chromium Plating       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing chrome or chromium plating, deposits or alloys. 
   Coatings / Paint       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing coatings or paint layers. 
   Copper / Copper Alloys       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for copper finishing. Copper is a common, reddish, metallic element that is ductile and malleable. It is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. Copper alloys are specified for applications in which superior corrosion-resistance, electrical conductivity, and good bearing-surface qualities are desired. All copper-base alloys are easily plated, brazed, soldered and machined. 
   Nickel / Nickel Plate       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing nickel and nickel alloys. Nickel and nickel alloys include proprietary products such as such as Monel®, Kovar®, Invar®, Inconel®, Incoloy®, and Hastelloy®. Monel, Inconel and Incoloy are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation.  Kovar and Invar are registered trademarks of Carpenter Technology. Hastelloy is a registered trademark of Haynes International. 
   Ophthalmic / Optical Materials       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing optical components such as lenses, mirrors, prisms, or fibers during fabrication. These compounds are also used in eyeglass or ophthalmic production. 
   Plastics / Composites       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing plastics or composite materials. 
   Precious Metals       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing noble or precious metals. These relatively scarce, highly corrosion-resistant, valuable metals are found in periods 5 and 6 of the periodic table. They include ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold. 
   Semiconductors / Electronics (Wafers)       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing applications, or for planarizing silicon wafers or other semiconductor and electronic materials. For example, CMP slurries or dispersions are used for wafer planarization. 
   Stainless Steel       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing stainless steel alloys. Stainless steel is chemical- and corrosion-resistant, and can have relatively high pressure ratings. 
   Steel / Steel Alloys       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing steel- or iron-based alloys. Steel is a commercial iron based on ferrous alloys which contains carbon in any amount up to about 1.7 % as an essential alloying constituent. Steel is malleable under suitable conditions, and is distinguished from cast iron by both its malleability and lower carbon content. 
   Stone / Masonry       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing stone or masonry materials such as granite, marble, and concrete. 
   Titanium       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing titanium and titanium alloys. Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery element that is relatively abundant in the Earth's crust. It is known for its lightness, strength, and corrosion-resistance. For this reason, titanium is used widely in the aerospace industry and in medical applications (e.g., replacement joints). When alloyed with other metals (especially steel), titanium adds strength and oxidation resistance. 
   Wood / Woodworking       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing wood or wood products. 
   Zinc       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing or polishing zinc and zinc alloys. Zinc alloys have a relatively-low melting point compared to those of copper, aluminum and steel alloys. Their low melting points make zinc alloys easy to die cast, but detract from their creep properties. Zinc alloys do not have the strength, ductility and toughness of wrought copper, aluminum and steel alloys. 
   Specialty / Other       Compounds are formulated, designed or suitable for finishing other specialty, proprietary or unlisted materials. 
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Form
           
   Your choices are...         
   Bar / Stick       Finishing compounds are provided in the form of a solid bar or stick. 
   Liquid / Dispersion       Finishing compounds or chemical agents are provided in the form of a liquid or dispersion. 
   Paste / Cream       Finishing compounds are provided in the form of a paste or cream. 
   Powder       Finishing compounds are provided in the form of a dry powder. Typically, the powder is dispersed or mixed with water, oil, or another carrier fluid before it is applied to the surface. 
   Slurry       Finishing compounds are provided in the form of a slurry. 
   Other       Finishing compounds are provided in another unlisted, proprietary or specialized form. 
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Compound / Abrasive Type
   Abrasive Grain Type:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum Oxide       Aluminum oxide is the most commonly used industrial mineral today. It occurs naturally in the form of the mineral corundum; however, this mineral is only used as a commercial abrasive in emery. Fused aluminum oxide is produced synthetically by melting bauxite and additives in an arc furnace to form fused aluminum-oxide ingots, which are later crushed and sized. Fused aluminum oxide is also produced synthetically by chemically purifying the various types of fused aluminum oxides, which are distinguished by the levels of chemical impurities remaining in the fused mineral. Titanium and chromium oxides are typical additives. Other techniques start with treating bauxite ore with a sol-gel process to create alumina that is sintered to an extremely-fine crystalline structure. Fused aluminum oxide is available in several variations, depending on composition and processing. Examples include white (high purity), brown or regular (titanium oxide modified), and pink (chromium oxide additions). Titanium oxide additions can toughen the abrasive and enable the heat-treating process, which changes brown aluminum oxide to a blue-colored grain as TiO2 precipitates form. Aluminum oxide abrasives are also produced with chemical precursors and precipitation, calcination and/or sintering processes. Calcined or platelet aluminas as used in fine-grit or polishing applications. Sol-gel aluminum oxide is produced by using chemical ceramic technology. These high-performance abrasives are usually referred to as "ceramic abrasive grains" in order to distinguish them from lower-performing forms of fused aluminum-oxide.  
   Boron Carbide       Boron carbide (B4C) is a very hard abrasive, with hardness second only to cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond. Boron carbide grains are very friable and, as a result, used mainly in bonded wheel dressing and the loose abrasive finishing of tungsten carbide or other hard alloys. 
   Ceramic       Ceramic abrasives usually consist of aluminum oxide with or without additional modifiers. They are produced in a sol-gel and sintering process. The ceramic processing method results in a hard, dense abrasive with an extremely-fine crystal size and outstanding grinding performance on a variety of workpiece materials. 
   Cerium Oxide       Ceria abrasives consist of cerium oxide and are used in fine polishing and lapping applications, especially in glass and optical components. 
   Diamond       Synthetic diamonds are produced in a high-temperature, high- pressure anvil press. Diamond is a superabrasive grain with the highest known hardness and a cubic crystal structure. Diamond is used for grinding nonferrous metals, ceramics, glass, stone, and building materials. It is not useful in grinding steel or ferrous alloys because the carbon or diamond readily dissolves or reacts with iron. Diamond pastes are useful in ferrous polishing or lapping applications in which heat and reactivity are not a factor.  Diamond is susceptible to oxidation at higher temperatures. 
   Emery / Crocus       Emery is a naturally occurring mineral abrasive consisting of aluminum oxide particles in a matrix of iron oxide and other impurities. Crocus is an iron oxide-based abrasive used in finishing applications. 
   Garnet       Garnet is a natural silicate mineral made of almandite and pyrope. It is mined from igneous mineral deposits, or in concentrated pockets of alluvial deposits of old riverbeds. Garnet has the general chemical formula of Fe2O3Al2 (SiO4)3. The iron and aluminum are partially replaceable by calcium, magnesium and manganese. 
   Rouge       Rouge can refer to a variety of abrasives or compounds. Red rouge is the most common type. Typically, it consists of iron oxide. Green, white, yellow and black rouges have different abrasive or active polishing ingredients. White, yellow and black products often use alumina or aluminum oxide, which is much harder than iron oxide. Green rouge often contains chromia or chromium oxide, which can be slightly harder than aluminum oxide. Pink rouges typically contain a mixture of aluminum and iron oxides. 
   Silica       Abrasive compounds are based on silicon dioxide or silica. Fumed silica-based CMP compounds are often used in semiconductor or silicon-wafer polishing and planarization applications. A pure silica CMP compound does not impart poisons or impurities into the wafer fab process. Typically, fumed or amorphous silica abrasives are chosen because crystalline silica is considered to be a carcinogen. 
   Silicon Carbide       Silicon carbide (SiC) is a synthetic abrasive that is harder than aluminum oxide, but more friable than fused aluminum-oxide grains. Typically, silicon carbide is applied to nonferrous metals such as brass, aluminum, or titanium. The high solubility of carbon and silicon in iron would cause a reaction between the silicon carbide and iron-base alloy, resulting in poor grinding performance. Levels and types of impurities distinguish the green and black forms of silicon carbide. The sharp and easily fractured abrasive grains can be used for abrading non-metals such as stone, glass, wood, and leather. Like diamond, silicon carbide is susceptible to oxidation at higher temperatures. 
   Tin Oxide       Tin oxide is an abrasive consisting of tin oxide. It is often used in polishing and lapping applications for glass and optical components. 
   Tripoli       Tripoli abrasive is based on a naturally-occurring, microcrystalline silicate mineral that forms in limestone beds. Tripoli is also known as rottenstone. Tripoli is much softer than other silicate-based abrasives such as pumice, feldspar or garnet. These softer characteristics make tripoli useful in buffing and polishing applications. 
   Tungsten Carbide       Crushed tungsten carbide grit is used in metal-bonded products for the abrasion of tough materials such as composites, fiberglass, reinforced plastics, rubber and other specialized materials. 
   Zirconia (e.g., Norzon®)       Alumina-zirconia abrasive grains consist of a fused alloy of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. NorZon® is a widely used variation from the Norton Company. It consists of a fused and quenched eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The resulting fine structure and higher hardness contributes to improved grinding performance on stainless steel, titanium, and other exotic metals. 
   Other       Other specialty, proprietary or patented abrasive grains, grits or abrasive materials. 
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Grit Size
   Grit Size:       Grit size applies to products with abrasive grains that are held in a matrix, or that are bonded to a surface (e.g., coated abrasives, MSL superabrasives, vitrified grinding wheels, dressing sticks, honing stones or grit dressers). Grit sizes are based on ANSI, FEPA, JIS or proprietary grading-system standards. These grading-system standards define a grit size through specified upper and lower limits at certain points in the size distribution. 
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   Grading / Grit System:       
   Your choices are...         
   ANSI       The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) provides U.S. grading or grit-size standards for abrasive grains used in bonded abrasives or grinding wheels. 
   FEPA       The Federation of European Producers of Abrasives (FEPA) provides European grading or grit-size standards for abrasive grains used in bonded abrasives or grinding wheels. 
   JIS       Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) are grit-size standards for abrasive grains. 
   Micron Graded       Micron-graded standards are used with very-fine abrasive grains that are graded to micron-size ranges, usually based an average particle size. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, proprietary, or specialized grading or grit systems. 
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