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Piezoelectric / Electrostrictive Type:

Electrostrictive Ceramic?

Electromechanical Coupling Constant (k33):

#

Distortion / Charge Constant (d33):

pm/V

Mechanical Qm:

Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity):

#

Loss Tangent (tan δ ):

#

Electrical Resistivity:

Max Use / Curie Temperature:

Shape / Form:

Hollow Stock / Shape?

Length:

Width / O.D.:

Thickness / Wall Thickness:

Performance Features:

Help with Piezoelectric Ceramics specifications:

Piezoceramic Type
   Piezoelectric / Electrostrictive Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Barium Titanate (BT)       Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is a compound consisting of titanium, oxygen, and an additional cation - barium. Barium titanates (BT) are commonly used for their specialized dielectric or piezoelectric properties. Resonators are often made from barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric constant and loss tangent is tuned with the addition of Sn, Nb, Zn, Ta or Mg ions for the specific RF or microwave application.  In piezoelectric applications, modified barium titanate compositions combine high-voltage sensitivity with good temperature characteristics in the -10°C to 60°C range. BT has proven useful for hydrophones and other receiving devices, and low-power projectors applied in fish finder products. 
   Bismuth Titanate / Sillenite       Bismuth titanate ceramics have very high Curie temperatures and operating temperatures of up to 550°C. These materials exhibit low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and stable properties up to very high temperatures. Bismuth titanates are used in high-temperature applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers. Bismuth titanate belongs to the group of sillenite, structure-based ceramics (Bi12MO20 where M=Si, Ge, Ti). 
   Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN)       Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) materials are magnesium-modified, lead-niobate compositions that have low aging, superior coupling, a high dielectric constant, and a high charge constant. Lead magnesium niobate materials exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strains vary non-linearly (quadratically). These materials are used for hydrophones, actuators, receivers, projectors, sonar transducers, and in micro-positioning devices. PMN forms solid solution alloys (PMN-PT) with lead titanate. 
   Lead Titanate (PT)       Lead titanate (PT) compositions have high mode-cancellation (reduced side-load sensitivity) compared to other solid solution piezoelectric materials, such as zirconium titanates. The good voltage output constant and excellent mode cancellation of lead titanates are valuable for non-destructive testing, accelerometers and hydrophones. 
   Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)       Lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions were developed for moderate power applications. PLZT compositions have a low loss tangent, which results in low power losses, as well as high distortion constant and a high curie point. PLZT's properties are desirable for ultrasonic applications - cleaners and other cavitation products, as well as acoustic projectors. PLZT materials are modified with La or Nb additions to form lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT), or niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) materials. The La or Nb additions counteract the natural p-type conductivity and raise the resistivity. These additives also enhance domain reorientation, resulting in square hysteresis loops, low coercivity, higher coupling factors and reduced aging. Materials are applied in high sensitivity applications such as hydrophones, sounders and loudspeakers. 
   Lead Niobate (PN, PNN, PZN)       Lead niobate includes lead metaniobate (PN), lead nickel niobate (PNN), and lead zinc niobate (PZN). Lead niobate has negligible aging, which helps simplify circuit design. Wide variations in temperature have limited effect on its dielectric and piezoelectric properties, making lead niobate ideal for high-temperature applications. The low mechanical factor and low dielectric constant of lead niobate makes it useful for high-frequency work. For example, lead niobate is used in wide-bandwidth sensors for high-frequency pulse echo measurements that require a short pulse and critical resolution.   Lead metaniobate (PN) exhibits properties not usually present in other types of piezoelectric ceramics, such as its low mechanical factor (QM) and high coupling anisotropy (i.e., small values for lateral and planar coupling compared to longitudinal coupling). PN also has negligible aging, a wide range of operating temperatures, and a low dielectric constant. Lead metaniobate compositions are in probes for non-destructive testing (NDT) transducers where low QM and clean impulse response are required. Underwater sonar equipment utilizes this form of lead niobate because the material has a high longitudinal coupling compared to its lateral and planar coupling, allowing it to generate a better response under hydrostatic pressures.   Lead nickel niobate (PNN) is lead niobate modified with nickel additions. Lead nickel niobate materials can exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strain varies non-linearly (quadratically). Lead nickel niobate compositions were developed to provide enhanced d33 and dielectric properties compared to Navy Type VI materials. These enhanced properties make it the optimum choice for ultrasound or actuator applications. The increased dielectric constant allows engineers to use the material in smaller (higher frequency) applications, while still maintaining the desired or necessary capacitance. The increased d33 allows for higher  displacement applications.  Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) is a lead niobate modified with magnesium additions. PZN materials are zinc-modified lead niobate compositions that exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strain varies non-linearly (quadratically). PZN forms solid-solution alloys with lead titanate and barium titanate (PZN-BT, PZN-PT). Relaxor materials exhibit a high dielectric constant over a range of temperature during transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase. The temperature corresponding to maximum dielectric constant is dependent on frequency. Relaxor crystal actuators can produce strain levels in excess of 1% and exhibit five times the strain energy density of a conventional piezoceramic. These materials are used for hydrophones, actuators, receivers, projectors, sonar transducers, capacitors, and in micro-positioning devices.  
   Lithium Niobate (LN)       Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a ferroelectric relaxor material. Lithium niobate single-crystals are widely utilized for their optoelectronic properties in optical modulation and Q-switching of infrared wavelengths.  Fe, Zn, Gd, Cu, Y, B and Er ions are used to dope lithium niobate to tailor properties for specific applications. Lithium tantalate is similar to lithium niobate. 
   Quartz       Quartz is found in a mined mineral form, as well as man-made fused quartz forms. Fused quartz is a high purity, crystalline form of silica used in specialized applications such as semiconductor wafer boats, furnace tubes, bell jars or quartz ware, silicon melt crucibles, high-performance lamps such as mercury and quartz halogen lamps, ultraviolet (UV) lamps, thermocouple protectors, waveguide handles, analytical labware, and other high-temperature products. Single-crystal quartz is also available for piezoelectric applications. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Electrostrictive Ceramic?       Electrostrictive ceramics are relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. Strains vary quadratically with an electric field for the electrostrictor, rather than linearly as in a piezoelectric ceramics. Relaxors exhibit very high dielectric constants (K > 20,000), diffuse ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transitions, and electrostrictive strain vs. electric field behavior.  Electrostrictors excel at high frequencies and very-low driving fields. Often, they are applied in specialized microactuators. Electrostrictors display little or no hysteretic loss even at very high frequencies of operation, due to the lack of spontaneous polarization. For transducer applications, electrostrictors must operate under a DC bias field to induce piezoelectric behavior. Operation under bias is characterized by field-dependent piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients.  Relaxors exhibit poor temperature stability and they operate best in situations where the temperature can be stabilized to within approximately 10°C.  
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Properties
   Electromechanical Coupling Constant (k33)       The coupling factor (k) is a related to the ratio of stored energy converted to the stored input energy. The coupling factor provides an indication of the efficiency of transduction in electromechanical or mechanical-electrical conversion, but not the absolute efficiency since energy can be converted at low frequencies. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Distortion / Charge Constant (d33)       The piezoelectric material constant (d) provides an indication of strain for a given applied electric field.  The 33 in d33 indicates the induced strain per unit electric field strength is in the 3-direction or the electric dipole per unit applied stress in the 3-direction. The X,Y,Z directions are equivalent to 1,2,3 directions.  P = dT where P is the electric dipole and T is the tensile stress in the material.  Charge constant is usually give in units of pm/V or pC/N. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Mechanical Qm       Mechanical Qm provides an indication of the relative steepness of a mechanical vibration resonance at or near the resonant frequency. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity)       The dielectric constant is the relative permittivity of a material compared to a vacuum or free space.  k = εr = ε / εo= where ε is the absolute permittivity of the material and εo is the absolute permittivity of a vacuum 8.85 x 10-12 F/m.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Loss Tangent (tan δ )       In dielectric materials, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ratio of the imaginary or loss permittivity to the real permittivity of a material. In a capacitive circuit with a sinusoidal or AC voltage, the loss tangent is equal to the ratio of dissipated or discharged current to the storage current tan δ = | IR / IC | .  The dielectric quality factor (Q) is equal the inverse of the loss tangent. High Q or low loss tangents are required to reduce insertion losses.  Q = (average stored energy per cycle / energy dissipated per cycle) In magnetic materials or ferrites, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ration of complex imaginary permeability (µ") to real permeability(µ').  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Electrical Resistivity       Electrical resistivity is the longitudinal electrical resistance (ohm-cm) of a uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. Electrical resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. High resistivity is a defining characteristic of a dielectric material. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Max Use / Curie Temperature       This is the maximum temperature that the refractory or ceramic material can be exposed to momentarily without the degradation of structural or other required end-use properties.  The maximum use temperature is usually equal to the melt temperature of the metal, glass, or other material contained by the refractory body in the furnace, boiler or process unit. The Curie point is the temperature above which a material loses its unique magnetic, dielectric or piezoelectric property.  Ferrites or other magnetic materials lose their unique magnetic properties above the Curie temperature. The relative permeability drops to a value below 0.1 above the Curie temperature.  Magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bar Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a bar or rod, usually with a square cross-section. Stock forms can be processed in rectangular, oval, hexagonal, or other shapes. 
   Block       Blocks are building materials or masonry units consisting of fired ceramic or cement materials with a regular shape. Blocks usually have a rectangular shape, although specialized shapes are used for paving, refractory, decorative and other specialized applications. Refractory or fireclay blocks are manufactured from temperature resistant materials.  Refractory blocks are stacked to form an insulating furnace, boiler, or other thermal process vessel wall.  The refractory blocks are usually cemented together with a refractory mortar. Blocks are similar to bricks but typically smaller in overall dimensions. 
   Fabricated / Custom Shape       Materials are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape such as a crucible, valve seat, blade, fired custom shaped brick or block, custom contoured tile, diffuser, furnace lining, degasser, and precast cement or concrete structural shape. The custom shape could be fabricated using pressing, slip casting, firing or sintering, melting, casting, cement form casting, and/or other processing methods. 
   Plate       Stock products are available in the form of a solid plate, slab, board, or substrate. The board or plate may consist of a ceramic fiberboard product, a dense sintered ceramic plate, or a precast cement bonded slab. 
   Powder / Grain       Stock products are available in a particulate form such as a powder, grog, grain, or fused and crushed aggregate. 
   Precursor / Sol-gel       Stock or standard products are available in the form of a liquid, solid or gaseous chemical precursor, or sol-gel chemical components. Sol-gel ceramics are made using alkoxide precursor chemicals. 
   Wafer / Substrate       Ceramic products in the form of thin substrates and wafers are used in semiconductor, thin and thick-film deposition, and optoelectronics applications. The ceramic material may be a dielectric insulator, a semiconductor, or a semi-insulator. Wafers for semiconductor applications usually consist of round substrates that are precision-polished and planarized. 
   Rod Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a rod or a bar with a round cross-section.  
   Tube Stock       Tube stock has a single, central bore or inner diameter. Tubes are commonly used as heating elements, for thermocouple protection, or channeling molten metal. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Hollow Stock / Shape?       Materials are supplied or available as hollow tubes, pipes or other stock with an open internal bore. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Dimensions
   Length       The length of a stock material such as a bar, rod, plate or tube.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Width / O.D.       The width is the outer diameter (O.D.) of stock shapes such as bars, plates, and tubes; or of fabricated components such as crucibles. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Thickness / Wall Thickness       The thickness of a stock form, tube wall, or other fabricated component. Stock forms include bars, rods, plates and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Features
   Performance Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Machinable       Machinable ceramics can be machined in the green, glass or finished state without excessive chipping. Typically, non-machinable ceramics are ground to finished dimensions, often with super abrasive grinding wheels. 
   Metallized / Electrode - Any Type       Ceramic surfaces are coated with a thin metal layer applied by plating, thin film, fired-on coating or other process. The coatings maybe continuous or selectively patterned on the surface or thru vias. In addition, float glass sheet or glass plate silvered to produce sheet mirror stock. 
   Modified / Doped       Materials are modified or doped with ions or additions of another ceramic to impart specific properties or improve processing. 
   Porous / Foam       Porous ceramics have a large degree of open or closed internal pores that provide a thermal barrier.  Certain ceramics have intrinsically low thermal conductivity, even in dense forms.  Reticulated foam refractories are useful in filtering molten metals and providing an extremely low density structure for insulation or other applications. 
   Sintered / Fired       Sintered or fired ceramics are homogenous materials in which individual grains or crystals are bonded to each other without the introduction of a foreign material (binder or cement) beyond small traces of dopants or sintering aids. These materials are densified through sintering or firing process. Sintered ceramics are sometime hot-pressed or hot isostatic pressed (HIP) to increase density close to theoretical. 
   Single Crystal       Single crystal materials consist of a monocrystal or single grain without any grain boundaries. The atoms maintain the same unit cell pattern and orientation throughout the material.  Single crystals of natural or man-made materials exhibit the desirable piezoelectric, optical or magnetic properties that cannot be attained with a polycrystalline ceramic material. An expanding variety of single crystals is being developed for acoustic, optical, wireless communication, and other applications. 
   Soft       Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Soft ferrites exhibit magnetic properties only when they are subject to a magnetizing force such as the magnetic field created when current is passed through wire surrounding a soft magnetic core.  Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. Soft piezoelectrics are less resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to hard piezoelectrics. High sensitivity or "soft" ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity, but if over driven these materials can be damaged due to self-heating beyond their operating temperature range or Curie temperature. Soft piezoelectrics are used in various sensors, low-power motor-type transducers, receivers, and low power generators. 
   Hard       Hard ferrites or magnetic materials have high magnetization or remanence (B) and these materials are used as permanent magnets. Hard ferrites retain their magnetization after the applied magnetics is removed. Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and therefore magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. High power or "hard" piezoelectric ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation and mechanical stress. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power generators and transducers.  Hard piezoelectric ceramics are more resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to soft piezoelectrics.  Hard piezoelectric materials are characterized by a very high load or distortion constant, low hysteresis and high Qm.    
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material features. 
   Coated       Coated materials use or are available with a glaze (fused glass enamel), metallized coating, plastic coating or other protective coating. The coating may seal porosity, improve water or chemical resistance, or enhance joining to metals or other materials. This category also includes glass materials with an organic coating or film, or ceramic frit coating for spandrel applications. 
   Composite / Ceramic Matrix       Composite materials consist of a matrix material reinforced with a stronger or higher modulus second phase.  The second phase may be in the form of particulates, chopped fibers or continuous fibers.  The matrix may consist of a ceramic in CRC or ceramic matrix composites.  Ceramic or reinforcing fibers are commonly chosen with high modulus and/or strength. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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