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Silicate and Clay Based Material Type:

Shape / Form:

Hollow Stock / Shape?

Length:

Width / O.D.:

Thickness / Wall Thickness:

Bore Diameter (I.D.):

MOR / Flexural Strength:

Compressive / Crushing Strength:

Modulus of Elasticity:

Density:

Index of Refraction:

#

Transmission:

%

Applications:

Performance Features:

Help with Silica, Quartz, and Silicate Materials specifications:

Material Type
   Silicate and Clay Based Material Type       
   Your choices are...         
   Cordierite       Cordierite (2MgO·2Al2O3·5SiO2) or cordierite porcelain is a magnesium aluminum silicate produced by fusing a mixture of talc, clay, and aluminum oxide. Cordierite and cordierite mineral precursors are also known as magnesium-alumino silicate, dichroite, and iolite. Cordierite has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high mechanical strength, and low dielectric loss.  Cordierite is commonly fabricated into an insulator or insulating substrate because of its good dielectric properties. Cordierite has excellent thermal-shock resistance. It can withstand a red heat to ice water quench, and then be returned to red heat. High-fire cordierite body will withstand a temperature rise from 70º to 1800º in 80 seconds, followed by an immediate room-temperature air quench. 
   Fireclay       Fireclay is a heat-resistant, secondary clay or clay-based mixture useful for elevated temperature or refractory bond applications. Fireclay-based refractories or ceramics use natural clay or a mixture of clay and other ceramics such as alumina, calcium aluminate, or silicon carbide. Clays or kaolin acts as a binder, and provides plasticity during shape or product processing.  Typically, fireclays have high alumina and silica levels such as flint clays, plastic fire clays, or other secondary clays. Fireclays usually contain between 10-40% alumina and 40-80% silica. 
   Forsterite       Forsterite is a stoichiometric magnesium orthosilicate (Mg2SiO4) used in applications that require a high coefficient of thermal expansion. Forsterite has desirable electrical insulation properties and is used as a layer on transformer steel sheets. This layer is formed by the reaction of magnesium oxide with the silicon additions of the steel during annealing. Forsterite is also used in bulk form to fabricate insulators. 
   Glass Ceramic       Glass ceramics are ceramics that can be fused and then molded, formed, ground, or machined using conventional glass fabrication techniques. After part fabrication, the glass ceramics' structure is transformed from an amorphous, glassy state to a crystalline ceramic state. MACOR® is widely applied glass ceramic with a fluorine rich glass composition approaching trisilicic fluorphlogopite mica (KMg3AlSi3O10F2). MACOR®is a trademarked proprietary material of Corning Corporation.  Ceran®Ceramat®, Robax®and Zerodur® are widely-applied proprietary glass ceramics from Schott Glass Corporation.  
   Silica / Fused Silica       Fused silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. High purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high-performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000° C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Aluminum Silicate (Mica, Sillimanite, etc.)       Ceramics contain or are based upon natural or synthetic aluminosilicate minerals such as sillimanite, fibrolite, or mica. Sillimanite, fibrolite, and mica are aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5) compounds that consist of silicon, aluminum and oxygen.  Sillimanite is also a naturally-occurring mineral that is calcined through processing.  Mica also contains potassium, and is characterized by its layer structure. Mica is fireproof and non-fusing, and can resist temperatures of up to 900° C - depending on the type of mica. Mica also has low heat conductivity, excellent thermal stability, and good dielectric or electrical insulation properties. The major types of mica are muscovite, biotite, and phlogopite. 
   Steatite       Steatite or steatite porcelains are based on hydrated magnesium silicate (3MgO-4SiO2-4H2O) and are similar in composition to naturally-occurring soapstone or mineral talc. Steatite ceramics may also have additions of alumina, calcia, and ferrous oxide.  Resistance heaters and electrical insulators are commonly made of steatite due to the material's low cost, refractoriness, and high electrical resistance at high temperatures. Steatite and steatite minerals are also known as soapstone, massive talc, block steatite, and soapstone silicate. Steatite ceramic is ideal for high frequency, low loss, and high voltage insulation. Steatite has good mechanical properties and low loss electrical qualities. It is ideal for resistor forms, igniters, standoffs, surge arrestors, coil forms, spacers, spark plugs, etc. Steatite is easily fabricated to close tolerances and is much less expensive than alumina ceramic insulators. 
   Zircon       Zircon is a compound of a zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4, which is found naturally in the form of zircon sand. Zircon has useful refractory properties. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
   Mullite       Mullite (3Al2O3-2Si02 or Al6Si2O13) is a compound of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen. Mullite can also be viewed as a phase in the alumina-silica binary system. Mullite is a synthetic, fused, or calcined crystalline aluminum silicate produced in electric arc furnaces from alumina and silica.  Mullite usually has an off-white or tan color. Depending on the purity and density, mullite can have superior dielectric and thermal shock properties and resistance to slag and silicate refractory bonds.  Mullite is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, and in refractory cements. Calcining kyanite minerals often derive refractory grade mullite or alumina-mullite mixtures.  
   Porcelain       Porcelain materials are used for both industrial and ornamental applications. Traditional porcelain is made from a mixture of feldspar, clay (kaolin), and flint.  Steatite or cordierite porcelains are commonly used in electrical insulator applications. Many porcelain compositions are based on the K20-Al203-SiO2 or Mg0-Al203-SiO2 ternary systems. 
   Quartz       Quartz is found in a mined mineral form, as well as man-made fused quartz forms. Fused quartz is a high purity, crystalline form of silica used in specialized applications such as semiconductor wafer boats, furnace tubes, bell jars or quartz ware, silicon melt crucibles, high-performance lamps such as mercury and quartz halogen lamps, ultraviolet (UV) lamps, thermocouple protectors, waveguide handles, analytical labware, and other high-temperature products. Single-crystal quartz is also available for piezoelectric applications. 
   Kaolin / Clay Based       Kaolin-based refractories or ceramics use natural kaolin or a mixture of clay and other ceramics such as alumina, calcium aluminate, or silicon carbide.  Kaolin acts as a binder and provides plasticity. It is a hydrous, mineral clay that is based on aluminum silicate [Al2(Si205)(0H)4].  Kaolin is also referred to as clay, anhydrous aluminum silicate, aluminum silicate dihydrate, nacrite, dickite, kaolinite, calcined, kaolinite, china clay, bolus alba, porcelain clay, aluminum, silicate hydroxide, or aluminum silicate (hydrated).  Kaolin’s plate-like structure allows particles in a wet clay mass to slide across each other and maintain plasticity. Kaolin is a white, soft, plastic clay composed primarily of well-ordered kaolinite mineral [Al2Si2O5(OH)4] with minor amounts of quartz, feldspar, and sheet silicate minerals (mica, illite, smectite, and chlorite).  Geologically, there are two types of kaolin deposits, i.e., primary and secondary kaolin. Primary kaolin is formed through the alteration, or kaolinization, of in-situ minerals of feldspar and other aluminum silicates to kaolinite. Secondary kaolin is laid down as sediments, usually in fresh water, far from the place of origin. Various types of secondary kaolin are ball clay, fireclay, or flint clay depending on kaolinite content and their properties.  
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Liner - Modular / Sectional       Modular or sectional lining systems consist of a series of interlocking components that fit or stack together to form a protective furnace lining. Induction furnaces often utilize a modular furnace lining system fabricated from ceramics that do not interfere with the inductive heating process. Liners may use a backup of ramming cement behind the liner, but not within the interlocking grooves.  Removal of refractory cement between the ceramic sections improves lining life and quality of the melt.  Tongue and groove crucibles are a modular crucible system consisting of a series of interlocking components that stack together to form a furnace lining or crucible.   
   Tile       Tile consists of a flat, thin ceramic shape usually with beveled edges for lining or covering a surface. Tile may have square, rectangular, hexagonal, triangular, round or custom shapes.  Tiles often have a protective glaze to create a waterproof or water resistance surface.  Tile can be smooth and glossy for wall applications, or anti-slip textured with a matt finish for floor applications. 
   Wafer Carrier / Holder       Wafer carriers and holders are specialized devices for processing of silicon or compound (GaAs) semiconductor wafers. Ceramics are used to fabricate wafer carriers due to their corrosion resistance and refractoriness. Wafers are mounted onto or held by the carriers during dicing, polishing, lapping, thinning, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), inspection or other operations. 
   Wafer / Substrate       Ceramic products in the form of thin substrates and wafers are used in semiconductor, thin and thick-film deposition, and optoelectronics applications. The ceramic material may be a dielectric insulator, a semiconductor, or a semi-insulator. Wafers for semiconductor applications usually consist of round substrates that are precision-polished and planarized. 
   Rod Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a rod or a bar with a round cross-section.  
   Roller / Roll       Rolls or rollers are tube or hollow shaped components used in bearing, rolling, and material handling applications.  Ceramic rollers are a key component in hybrid ceramic roller bearings.  Ceramic or fused silica rolls are used in furnaces to handle or move hot glass sheet or other thermally processed materials. 
   Spout /  Nozzle (Launder Pouring / Atomization)       Pouring nozzles or orifices are used to direct or meter the flow of molten metal or other melted materials. Atomization nozzles are a critical component in the gas atomization process used to product metal powders. Ceramic nozzles are also used to shield other components of a system from arcs or abrasive jet/blast streams. Pouring cups, pouring tubes, tundish nozzles, and continuous casting tips also fit into this category.  A launder or spout is used delivery molten metal or molten glass from a furnace to ladle or crucible, from furnace to furnace, or from a furnace or crucible to a mold or forming equipment. 
   Tube Stock       Tube stock has a single, central bore or inner diameter. Tubes are commonly used as heating elements, for thermocouple protection, or channeling molten metal. 
   Plate / Board (e.g., Fiberboard)       Stock products are available in the form of a solid plate, slab, board, or substrate. The board or plate may consist of a ceramic fiberboard product, a dense sintered ceramic plate, or a precast cement bonded slab. 
   Powder / Aggregate (Grain / Grog)       Stock products are available in a particulate form such as a powder, grog, grain, or fused and crushed aggregate. 
   Precursor / Sol-gel       Stock or standard products are available in the form of a liquid, solid or gaseous chemical precursor, or sol-gel chemical components. Sol-gel ceramics are made using alkoxide precursor chemicals. 
   Fabricated / Custom Shape       Materials are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape such as a crucible, valve seat, blade, fired custom shaped brick or block, custom contoured tile, diffuser, furnace lining, degasser, and precast cement or concrete structural shape. The custom shape could be fabricated using pressing, slip casting, firing or sintering, melting, casting, cement form casting, and/or other processing methods. 
   Foundry / Plunger Tools (Stirrer, Stopper, etc.)        Foundry or plunger tools are designed to be immersed in molten metal and aid in the processing and casting of metal melts. Foundry and plunger tools include stirring rods, mixing paddles, dippers, skimmers, degasser tubes, degassing rotors, riser stalks, and stopper rods. Plunger mixers or stirring rods are dipped into molten materials to agitate, mix, or sample the metal or glass melt to assure consistent homogeneity. Stopper rods are used to control the flow and mixing of molten material in a crucible, ladle, pot or furnace. Stoppers are used to stop or control flow of a melt by plugging up a hole in the bottom of furnace crucible or melting pot. Dippers or skimmers are used to remove. 
   Ferrule / Eyelet       Ferrules and eyelets are cylindrically-shaped ceramic components with a central bore for protection or spacing applications. Refractory ferrules provide the best protection possible for vulnerable boiler tube inlet areas and metal tube sheets in sulfur recovery units (SRUs), methane reformers and waste heat boilers (WHBs). Eyelets are used in textile and wear guide applications.  Ceramic ferrules or stand-offs are used in circuit board, fiber optic, and RF & microwave applications. Electronic ferrules or stand-offs required good dielectric properties.  Optical ceramic ferrules are used in the alignment of optical fiber. Electronic ferrules are used in spacing or insulating electronic components. 
   Filter / Diffuser       Spargers or diffusers are porous ceramics used to blow fine bubbles of a gas into a metal melt to remove impurities, particulates or other detrimental melt gases, de-oxidize melts, and enable chemical reactions. Filters are porous ceramics are used to remove impurities by passing the molten materials through the filter. 
   Bar Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a bar or rod, usually with a square cross-section. Stock forms can be processed in rectangular, oval, hexagonal, or other shapes. 
   Tube / Sheath - Immersion (Closed End)       Sheathed, immersion, or closed-end tubes are designed to protect heating elements, burners, or other devices in high-temperature furnaces from immersion in molten metals, glasses, or other melted materials. 
   Kiln Furniture / Support       Beams, posts, setters, supports, rollers, baffles, kiln cars, boats, shelves, or other components are used to support, move, and process products or raw materials in furnaces or kilns. 
   Block       Blocks are building materials or masonry units consisting of fired ceramic or cement materials with a regular shape. Blocks usually have a rectangular shape, although specialized shapes are used for paving, refractory, decorative and other specialized applications. Refractory or fireclay blocks are manufactured from temperature resistant materials.  Refractory blocks are stacked to form an insulating furnace, boiler, or other thermal process vessel wall.  The refractory blocks are usually cemented together with a refractory mortar. Blocks are similar to bricks but typically smaller in overall dimensions. 
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   Hollow Stock / Shape?       Materials are supplied or available as hollow tubes, pipes or other stock with an open internal bore. 
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Dimensions
   Length       The length of a stock material such as a bar, rod, plate or tube.  
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   Width / O.D.       The width is the outer diameter (O.D.) of stock shapes such as bars, plates, and tubes; or of fabricated components such as crucibles. 
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   Thickness / Wall Thickness       The thickness of a stock form, tube wall, or other fabricated component. Stock forms include bars, rods, plates and tubes. 
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   Bore Diameter (I.D.)       The bore diameter or inner diameter (ID) is the width at the bottom of fabricated, tapered components such as crucibles. 
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Mechanical
   MOR / Flexural Strength       Modulus of rupture (MOR), cross-break strength or flexural strength (3-point or 4-point) is the maximum flexural stress a bar can withstand before failure or fracture occurs. The bar is supported by two points beneath the bar and the load is applied by one or two points above the bar. Cross break strength is used to evaluate the strength of ceramics or other materials that do not provide sufficient plastic deformation to test tensile strength reliably.  
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   Compressive / Crushing Strength       The crushing or compressive strength is the maximum compressive load per unit cross section that a ceramic body can withstand before mechanical failure or breakage occurs.   
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   Modulus of Elasticity       Young's modulus or the modulus of elasticity is a material constant that indicates the variation is strain produced under an applied tensile load.  Higher modulus of elasticity materials provides higher stiffness or rigidity. 
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Physical & Optical Properties
   Density       Density is the mass per unit area for a material.  The fired density is dependent on the theoretical density of 100% dense body and the actual porosity retained after processing.  
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   Index of Refraction       The index of refraction is a measure of the speed of light in a material. 
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   Transmission       This is the amount of light transmitted through a material. 
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Applications
   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Abrasive / Erosive Wear Protection       Materials resist damage by abrasion or erosion, and protect underlying surfaces from abrasive or erosive wear. 
   Armor / Ballistic Protection       Materials are used to protect equipment, vehicles and/or personal against damage from blasts, explosions, bullets and other high-speed projectiles. 
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Material is suitable for use in battery or fuel cell as a collector plate, proton exchange membrane or catalyst. 
   Biocompatible / Bioceramics       Bioceramics are specially formulated or designed to have suitable biocompatibility for biotechnology and medical applications. 
   Ceramics / Glass Manufacturing       Materials provide resistance to molten glass, or are compatible with ceramics and glasses during firing, calcining or fusing in a kiln or furnace. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  Examples include ceramics or refractories with resistance to molten glass, ceramics, metals, plastics or other materials during milling, firing, calcination, fusion or other processes. 
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications. Examples include bricks, fire bricks or tiles.  
   Corrosion Protection       Materials are designed or suitable for corrosive environments, such as the floors or walls of chemical processing plants. 
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. Examples include insulators, igniters or heating elements. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave. Ferrites, garnets, alumina/sapphire and silicates have sufficient dielectric properties for use in electronic, radio frequency (RF) and microwave devices such as antenna radomes, patch antenna substrates, thin/thick film substrates and resonators. In addition, ceramics, glass and other non-metallic compounds or elemental semiconductors are used as substrates, wafer or dummy wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.  Ceramics are also used for wafer chucks or holders, wafer furnace boats and thin film chamber liners. 
   Foundry / Metal Processing       Materials are designed for foundry and metal-processing applications. Ceramic and refractory crucibles, tubes, stoppers, liners, spouts, permanent molds, thermocouple protection tubes, combustion gas heater tubes, submersible heater tubes, die casting stalks/sleeves, and other furnace components are used in foundries for melting and casting aluminum, steel, copper alloys or other metals. 
   Optics / Optical Grade       Ceramic, optical grade materials are used in the fabricating or processing of optical components such as lenses, windows, prisms, optical fibers, and lasing material components. Materials with optical applications include single-crystal ceramics, transparent ceramics, sapphire, and quartz. 
   Refractory / High Temperature Materials       Refractory and high-temperature materials are hard, heat-resistant products such as alumina cement, fire clay, bricks, precast shapes, cement or monolithics, and ceramic kiln furniture. Ceramic refractories have high melting points and are suitable for applications requiring wear-resistance, high temperature strength, electrical or thermal insulation, or other specialized characteristics. 
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and other mechanical properties. Ceramics can have much higher compressive strengths and elastic moduli compared to metals. 
   Wear Parts / Tooling       Wear-resistant ceramics are used in industrial products such as automotive rings, pump parts, valve seals/seats, faucet discs, papermaking machine dewatering strips, aluminum can dies, wire drawing dies and textile guides. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
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Features
   Performance Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Coated       Coated materials use or are available with a glaze (fused glass enamel), metallized coating, plastic coating or other protective coating. The coating may seal porosity, improve water or chemical resistance, or enhance joining to metals or other materials. This category also includes glass materials with an organic coating or film, or ceramic frit coating for spandrel applications. 
   Composite / Ceramic Matrix       Composite materials consist of a matrix material reinforced with a stronger or higher modulus second phase.  The second phase may be in the form of particulates, chopped fibers or continuous fibers.  The matrix may consist of a ceramic in CRC or ceramic matrix composites.  Ceramic or reinforcing fibers are commonly chosen with high modulus and/or strength. 
   Dielectric / Electrically Insulating       Dielectric ceramics have high electrical resistivity (low electrical conductivity) and high dielectric strength. Dielectric strength is the resistance to electrical breakdown under an applied electric field. 
   Metallized / Silvered (Electrode, Mirror)       Ceramic surfaces are coated with a thin metal layer applied by plating, thin film, fired-on coating or other process. The coatings maybe continuous or selectively patterned on the surface or thru vias. In addition, float glass sheet or glass plate silvered to produce sheet mirror stock. 
   Thermal Insulation / Fire Proofing       Thermally-insulating ceramics and refractories provide a thermal barrier between components and a hot or cold source. These ceramics and refractory shapes are also useful in providing flame protection and fire-proofing between a burner and the surrounding environment, or between combustion and oxygen sources. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material features. 
   Machinable       Machinable ceramics can be machined in the green, glass or finished state without excessive chipping. Typically, non-machinable ceramics are ground to finished dimensions, often with super abrasive grinding wheels. 
   Modified / Doped       Materials are modified or doped with ions or additions of another ceramic to impart specific properties or improve processing. 
   Porous / Foam       Porous ceramics have a large degree of open or closed internal pores that provide a thermal barrier.  Certain ceramics have intrinsically low thermal conductivity, even in dense forms.  Reticulated foam refractories are useful in filtering molten metals and providing an extremely low density structure for insulation or other applications. 
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