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Type:

Form / Shape:

Materials:

Plated / Coated?

Bimetal / Clad Overlay?

OD / Width :

Length:

Thickness:

Conductivity:

Resistivity:

Current Density:

amps / sq. in.

Tensile Strength (UTS):

Elongation (%):

%

Features:

Applications / Industry:

Help with Cathode Emitters and Filaments specifications:

Types
   Type:       
   Your choices are...         
   Cathode / Cathode Material       Cathodes are negatively charged electrodes used in batteries, electrolysis systems, plating, electrowinning, electron emission, and other specialized processes. 
   Cathodic Emitters / Filaments       Cathodic, field or thermionic emitters are cathodes that emit electrons under high voltage or high temperature conditions. Thermionic emitters often consist of a tungsten or refractory metal filament. Lathanum boride emitters are now used, which provide longer life. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary electrode types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Shape / Form
   Form / Shape:       
   Your choices are...         
   Application Specific / Custom       Products are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape. 
   Assembly       An assembly is a contact, brush contact, or electrode attached to the carrier or support member (e.g. line strap, arm, plunger, or leaf spring). Welding, mechanical fastening or riveting, and brazing or soldering may be used to fabricate the contact or brush assembly. 
   Assembly - Plunger / Pogo       The contact or brush assembly consists of a contact with an integral spring that maintains enough contact force to ensure low contact resistance. 
   Bar Stock       The contact material is provided in the form of bar stock. 
   Block / Billet       Products are large blocks, billets, or other raw stock forms of graphite, copper, tungsten, tungsten-copper, brass wire, or other materials used to form EDM electrodes or arc furnace electrodes. 
   Pin / Probe       Small contact probes are used for testing circuit boards or other electronic components. This category also includes contacts in the form of small pins used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Socket / Receptacle       Contacts are provided in the form of small sockets used in the fabrication of connectors. 
   Rod Stock       Products are solid rod stock. 
   Stamped / Spring Contact       Contacts are provided in the form of small stampings. Often stampings are used in the fabrication of connectors for electronic components. 
   Strip / Tape       Electrical contacts in strip form may have pre-attached contacts (welded or inlay contacts) as well as rivet holes. Strip electrical contact tape is specialized strip stock for welding or staking operations. Tape usually consists of a bimetal or multiple-layer clad strip. 
   Tip / Button       The contact tip or button consists of a shaped pad formed by powder metallurgy, a shearing strip, or a punched sheet. The pad may have nibs for welding or serrations for brazing. The tips often have a layer of braze preapplied in a furnace brazing operation. 
   Wire       Products are provided as wire or wire stock. EDM wire is used in traveling-wire EDM machines. EDM wire does not need to provide EDM wear or arc erosion-resistance since new wire is fed continuously during the EDM wire-cutting process. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary forms or shapes. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Material Types
   Materials:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum / Aluminum Alloy       Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding. This metal is a good electrical and thermal conductor. Aluminum is also useful as an alloying element in steel and titanium alloys. Aluminum alloys are versatile metals with applications in almost every industrial and commercial segment. 
   Carbon Graphite       Carbon graphite provides a cleaning action at low speeds. Carbon graphite was one of the first brush material grades developed and is found in many older motors and generators. It has an amorphous structure. 
   Ceramic       Ceramic materials are non-metallic, inorganic compounds that include oxygen, carbon, or nitrogen such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and zirconium oxide ceramics. They have high melting points, wear resistance, and a wide range of electrical properties. 
   Copper (Cu)       Copper is second only to silver in terms of bulk electrical conductivity. Copper has better strength than silver, but offers inferior oxidation resistance. Often, copper is used as a base metal in electrical contact and electrode applications. Copper is also used to manufacture EDM electrodes. Copper has better EDM wear resistance than brass, but is more difficult to machine than either brass or graphite. Copper is also more expensive than graphite. Copper is useful in the EDM machining of tungsten carbide, or in applications requiring a fine finish. 
   Copper Graphite       Copper graphite is a composite mixture of graphite and copper metal (~15 to 95%), resulting in a material with higher conductivity than pure graphite and lower friction or sticking than pure copper in sliding contact applications. Typically, the copper bonds the graphite together to form continuous, high-conductivity paths and a lower voltage drop. These characteristics allow copper graphite brushes to perform well under high current density and low voltage conditions.  Copper graphite is more expensive than other materials, but provides better conductivity and flexural strength than pure graphite. Copper's higher strength is useful for fabricating thin section EDM electrodes. 
   Gold / Gold Alloy (Au)       Gold has extremely high corrosion, resulting in high-reliability electrical contacts even under light load conditions. Gold forms useful contact alloys with silver, copper, nickel, cobalt, platinum, and palladium. Major drawbacks are gold's high cost, poor sliding friction characteristics, and low erosion resistance. 
   Magnesium / Magnesium Alloy (UNS M)       Magnesium and magnesium alloys are non-ferrous metals with low density (relatively high strength to weight ratio), good ductility, moderate strength, and good corrosion resistance. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are used in a variety of industries as well as in aircraft, marine, and power tool applications. 
   Palladium / Palladium Alloys       Palladium has good erosion resistance and high corrosion resistance with low material transfer. Palladium forms useful alloys with copper and ruthenium. Major drawbacks are palladium's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Platinum / Platinum Alloys       Platinum has very high erosion and corrosion resistance with low contact resistance. Platinum forms useful alloys with iridium, ruthenium, and tungsten. Major drawbacks are platinum's high cost and the development of high contact resistance films in the presence of organic vapors. 
   Titanium / Titanium Alloy       Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, good fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium's properties result in the use of titanium and titanium alloys in aircraft or airframe parts, jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), prostheses or medical devices, and marine equipment. 
   Silver / Silver Alloy (Ag)       Silver has the highest conductivity of all metals. The high conductivity, softness or low hardness, and high resistance to oxidation make silver an excellent choice for contact materials. Silver is strengthened with copper additions, but at the sacrifice of conductivity. Fine silver is silver with very high purity (99.99% Ag). Pure or fine silver is too soft for most commercial applications, but the material is used as a starting component to form other silver based alloys. 
   Zinc / Zinc Alloy (UNS Z)       Zinc and zinc alloys are moderately low melting, non-ferrous alloys widely used in the production of die cast components. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary brush materials. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Plated / Coated?       Contact, brush, or base metals are plated or coated with a conductive material. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Bimetal / Clad Overlay?       Bimetals or clad metals are multilayer tape or button contacts that are formed using an overlay weld-cladding process or a top-lay brazing process to integrally bond two or more metals. Inlay or stripe contact materials are bimetal or multiple material clad structures that are formed when the contact material is inlaid flush-in, or edge-laid on a base-metal alloy strip. Top-lay bimetal products or tapes are made with braze to form a metallurgical bond between layers. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Size / Dimensions
   OD / Width        This is the outer diameter (OD) or width of a component or stock-form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, plate, or tube.  This measurement may also represent the outer diameter or width of fabricated components such as electrodes or contact tips. According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush width is the axial dimension, parallel to the motor or generator shaft.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Length       This is the length of a component or stock form material such as a pad, block, strip, bar, rod, plate, or tube. Typically, length is the largest dimension of the component.  According to ISO, EN or DIN brush standards, the brush length is the radial dimension, or the dimension perpendicular to the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Thickness       The thickness is typically the smallest dimension of a pad, block, strip, sheet, or plate material. According to ISO, EN, or DIN brush standards, thickness is defined as the dimension tangential or in the same rotational direction as the commutator or slip ring. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Properties
   Conductivity       Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity. Conductivity is often given as percent of a copper standard, which is 100% IACS, the acronym for International Annealed Copper Standard. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Resistivity       Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Current Density       Current density is the maximum current per unit of area that the contact, brush, or electrode is designed to handle in continuous use without excessive overheating, erosion, or sticking. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Tensile Strength (UTS)       Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is the amount of applied stress required to cause a control specimen to fail under tensile load conditions. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Elongation (%):       Percent elongation provides an indication of a material's ductility. This is the amount of permanent deformation occurring after a controlled tensile test. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Features
   Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Machined       Electrical contact or electrodes are manufactured to the desired shape and dimensional specifications through a machining process. 
   MIL-SPEC Certified       Contacts meet U.S. military specifications (MIL-SPEC). 
   Threaded       Contacts are threaded for attachment with a riveting process. 
   Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized features. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Applications
   Applications / Industry:       
   Your choices are...         
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Electrodes or contacts are designed for battery or fuel cell applications. Battery contact are interconnects between the battery and the system. The contact often consists of a low-cost base metal such as steel or brass with a plated layer of high-conductivity or corrosion-resistant metal. Battery or fuel cell electrodes, anode or cathodes are internal components used in generating electrical current through an electrochemical reaction with stored electrolytes or continuously supplied fuels. 
   Corrosion Control        Anode or electrode is designed provide protection against corrosion through a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system. Corrosion protection electrodes consist of a sacrificial anode or galvanic anode and impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) anodes. The sacrificial anode corrodes in preference to the material being protected. Zinc anodes on steel structures is a common example. ICCP anodes are used with a DC rectifier or power supply (DC current source), which impresses the current on the system blocking the electrochemical corrosion reaction. Impressed current anodes are also known as IP anodes, dimensionally stable anodes, or insoluble anodes. 
   Electronics (IC Packaging / Interconnect)       Electrodes or contacts are designed for electronics or interconnection applications including high thermal conductivity materials for integrated circuit (IC) packaging cores or heat sinks. 
   Electroplating / Electrolysis       Electrodes are designed for use in electroplating or electrolysis processes. 
   OEM / New Equipment       Electrical brushes, contacts, or electrode components are designed or suitable for original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or new equipment applications. The components are often adjusted for the specific product or new equipment under development by the OEM. 
   Repair / Replacement       Electrodes, contacts, contact assemblies, or brush assemblies are designed for repair or replacement in various breakers, motors, or other electrical equipment while maintaining or improving performance characteristics. 
   Specialty / Other       Other proprietary, unlisted, or specialized applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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