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Metal / Alloy Types:

Alloy?

Pure / Very Low Alloy?

Clad / Bimetal?

Metal Matrix Composite?

Vacuum Arc Melted / Remelted (VAR)?

Shape / Form:

Coil Stock?

Hollow Stock?

Overall Width / OD:

Overall Length:

Overall Thickness:

ID:

Standards / Specifications:

UNS R Number:

Applications:

Features:

Processing & Finish:

Finish:

Help with Refractory and Reactive Metals specifications:

Types
   Metal / Alloy Types:       
   Your choices are...         
   Beryllium / Beryllium Alloy       Beryllium has the second lowest density compared to the common structural light metal alloys (Al, Mg, and Ti). Magnesium has a density of 1.74 g/cc and aluminum has a density of 2.7 g/cc. Beryllium's unusually high Young's modulus (287 GPa) is a useful property in structural applications. The high modulus and low density make beryllium alloys useful for aerospace applications. Beryllium has superior specific heat dissipation (heat dissipation per unit mass) compared to other metals because of beryllium's high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Beryllium also has a low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE). Many heat sinks and other thermal management products are fabricated from beryllium, beryllium alloys, and beryllium oxide ceramics due to beryllium's excellent thermal properties. Beryllium is also used to fabricate x-ray detector windows because it is transparent to most x-rays and gamma rays. Only characteristic x-rays from elements with lower atomic weights compared to beryllium are stopped or absorbed by a Be window. 
   Chromium       Chromium has melting point of 1900° C, which is at the lower end of the range for refractory metals. Chromium is usual compared to other high melting point refractory metals because chromium metal has a very high vapor pressure. The chromium is less dense and has a lower modulus or elasticity compared to heavy refractory metals like molybdenum or tungsten. Chromium is one of the most corrosion and oxidation resistant of the refractory metals - especially in much acid and alkaline environments. 
   Cobalt / Cobalt Alloy       Cobalt and cobalt alloys are non-ferrous magnetic alloys with high strength and toughness, excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance, and high temperature strength. Cobalt can also be magnetized. Cobalt's properties result in the use of cobalt alloys in jet engine super-alloy components, prosthetic devices, magnets, and cutting tool binders. Cobalt is a useful alloying element in tool, maraging, and other alloy steels. 
   Hafnium       Hafnium is a dense, steel-gray reactive metal that is very closely related to zirconium. Hafnium and zirconium occur together in nature. Hafnium has properties very similar to zirconium, except in nuclear application where they are opposites. Zirconium alloys such as Zircalloy are an excellent tube material choice for containment of uranium dioxide pellets because zirconium has a low neutron capture cross section. Inversely, hafnium has a high thermal neutron capture cross section (neutron absorber) is commonly used a control rod alloy in nuclear reactors. Hafnium has a high affinity for oxygen resulting in the formation of a hard, smooth, adherent oxide surface – a protective film that imparts high corrosion resistance to hafnium alloys. The density of hafnium is 13.31 g/cm3 and a melting point of 2233° C (4051° F).  Hafnium alloys have high-strength and good ductility. Hafnium metal products are used as alloying agents, catalysts, filaments, and electrodes. 
   Molybdenum / Molybdenum Alloy       Molybdenum is a refractory metal with a very high melting point and a relatively high density. Molybdenum and molybdenum alloys are used to fabricate PVD evaporation crucibles, electrodes, electrical contacts, and other high temperature components.  
   Niobium / Niobium Alloy       Niobium is used in niobium-titanium alloys to make the low temperature metallic superconductors required for the powerful  magnets used in MRI units. Niobium and niobium alloys are used in nuclear and chemical process equipment applications because of the metal's excellent corrosion resistance in alkaline, acidic, salt water and some molten salt environments. Niobium has corrosion resistance and properties similar to tantalum, which is the most corrosion resistant metal.  Niobium falls into the group of metals known as refractory metals because the metal has a high melting point above 1750ºC. Nb melts at 2477ºC. Refractory metals are used to make components for high temperature applications. Some refractory alloys require coatings to resist rapid oxidation or scaling at high temperatures. In space or vacuum furnace applications, oxygen may not be a concern. In Europe, niobium is also known as columbium. 
   Rhenium / Rhenium Alloy       Rhenium (Re) is a greyish, silvery colored metal. Rhenium is one of the rarest metals.  Rhenium was discovered in 1925 by German scientists Ida and Walter Noddack. It was the last stable element to be discovered. Rhenium has the second highest melting point (3,180 ° C) of the metals, which exceeded by tungsten. Rhenium has the highest boiling point of all the elements. Rhenium is a very dense metal having a high density of 21.04 g/cc, which is only exceeded by platinum, iridium, and osmium. Products from rhenium can be thermally cycled thousands of times with no effects.  Rhenium is used as electrical contact because the metal is resistant to sliding wear, arc erosion and rhenium oxide (Rh2O7) sublimes at relatively low temperature of . Rhenium is used to make filaments for lamps, mass spectrometers, ion gauges and flash lamps. Rhenium is also an excellent hydrogenation catalyst with high resistance to poisoning or degradation from nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Rhenium-platinum catalysts are essential for lead free gasoline production. Rhenium is useful an alloying element for improving the properties of nickel superalloys, tungsten and molybdenum alloys. Rhenium additions to nickel based superalloys dramatically improves creep resistance.  70% of the rhenium production is used for the production of nickel superalloys. Rhenium additions improve the ductility of tungsten and molybdenum alloys. Rhenium-tungsten alloys are used to make high temperature thermocouple wire, which can be used to measure temperatures up to 2200°C. 
   Tantalum / Tantalum Alloy       Tantalum is an extremely corrosion resistant refractory metal. Tantalum can be fabricated by conventional methods due to the metal's good ductility and weldability. The corrosion resistance exceeds that of titanium and nickel alloys in many environments. Tantalum has a dark bluish gray color and is almost completely immune to acid attacks. 
   Titanium / Titanium Alloy       Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, good fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium's properties result in the use of titanium and titanium alloys in aircraft or airframe parts, jet engine super-alloy components, corrosion resistant chemical process equipment (valves, piping, and pumps), prostheses or medical devices, and marine equipment. 
   Tungsten / Tungsten Alloy       Tungsten is a refractory metal with a very high melting point and high density. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are used to fabricate light bulb filaments, PVD evaporation crucibles, EDM electrodes, electrical contacts, and other high temperature components. The high density of tungsten alloys are put to use in penetrators and balancing weights. 
   Zirconium / Zirconium Alloy       Zirconium and zirconium alloys are used in chemical process equipment applications because of the metal's excellent corrosion resistance in alkaline, acidic, salt water, and some molten salt environments. Zirconium metal has high affinity to oxygen, i.e. a zirconium oxide has a high energy or heat of formation. Zirconium falls into the group of metals known as refractory metals because the metal has a high melting point above 1750ºC. Zr melts at 1855ºC. Refractory metals are used to make components for high temperature applications. Some refractory alloys require coatings to resist rapid oxidation or scaling at high temperatures. In space or vacuum furnace applications, oxygen may not be a concern. Zirconium's high reactivity toward oxygen has led to the metals use as getters (oxygen absorbers in vacuum chambers and thin film coating systems) and as pyrophoric components in explosive munitions and primers. Hafnium has properties very similar to zirconium, except in nuclear application where they are opposites. Zirconium alloys such as Zircalloy are an excellent tube material choice for containment of uranium dioxide pellets because zirconium has a low neutron capture cross section. Inversely, hafnium has a high neutron capture cross section (neutron absorber) is commonly used a control rod alloy in nuclear reactors.  
   Specialty / Other Alloy       This refers to other unlisted, specialty or proprietary metals or alloy grades. These materials are based on a unique composition or alloy system, use a novel processing technology, or have properties designed for specific applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Alloy       Alloys have significant amounts of intentionally added alloying elements or constituents. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Pure / Very Low Alloy?       Commercially pure, unalloyed, or very low alloy metals are free of or contain very small amounts of alloying elements such as copper and various grades of copper (e.g., ETP Cu, Be Cu, Cr Cu, Te Cu, Zr Cu); commercially pure titanium or palladium-modified titanium (e.g., C.P. titanium); and pure aluminum grades from the AA 10nnnn Series (e.g., AA 1000 to 1999). 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Clad / Bimetal?       The metal or alloy stock is a clad or bimetal material, which consists of two or more different alloys bonded integrally together. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Metal Matrix Composite?       Metal matrix composites have a composite, reinforced metal, or alloy matrix filled with a second component. The second component of reinforcement may be in particulate, chopped fiber, continuous filament, or fabric form. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Vacuum Arc Melted / Remelted (VAR)?       The metal alloy has been melted or remelted using an electrical arc in a vacuum chamber or vacuum arc furnace, and then cast into a ingot, billet or other shape. The vacuum protects the metal alloy from oxidation and contamination during the high temperature melting process. Vacuum melting can also remove undesirable contaminants through evaporation such as magnesium chloride in titanium sponge. Electric arc furnaced steels or E-grade steels are very clean and have less inclusions and lower variability. Aircraft, bearing, and premium steels are usually electric arc furnaced or E-grade steels.  
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Billet / Slab / Bloom       Billets, slabs, or blooms are massive, hot rolled, or forged blocks of metals or alloys. These forms can have semi-finished square, rectangular slab, or round cross-sections. Producing billets or blooms from ingots by forging is called cogging. Hot-rolling ingots is a process called blooming. Billets are used as feedstock for rolling operations and in the machining of large components. Slabs are semi-finished steel blocks, usually with widths that are at least twice their thickness. 
   Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as bars, rod stock, or billets. Bars or rods may have a round, square, rectangular/flat, hexagonal, or oval-shaped cross-section.  
   Flats / Rectangular Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two unequal sides proscribe a right angle between the surfaces.  
   Squares / Square Bar       Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two equal sides proscribe a right angle between surfaces. 
   Hex Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as hexagonal stock with a hex-shaped cross-section.  
   Ingot       Materials are supplied or available as ingots or casting stock product forms. 
   Foil       Foil is very thin sheet or strip stock with a thickness of less than 0.006".   
   Plate       Materials are supplied or available as plates. Plates have a thickness of at least 0.250", but may be larger than 1/4". 
   Profile / Structural Shape       Profiles and structural shapes include shaped stock with uniform cross sections such tees, angles, channels, I-beams, rectangular tubes, and other cross sectional shapes. These shapes are manufactured through extrusion, continuous casting, roll forming, or other processes. 
   Angle       Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an "L" or angle-shaped cross section. 
   Beam / I-Beam       Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an I-beam or I-shaped cross-section. 
   Channel       This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a "C" or channel shaped cross-section. 
   Tee       This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a "T" or T-shaped cross-section. 
   Powder       Materials are available as powders, granules, or flakes. 
   Semi-finished Shape / Mill Stock       Semi-finished metal shapes or stock shapes are suitable for part fabrication by machining, assembly, or other processes. Stock shapes are also used as feedstock for casting, forging, spinning, and other forming processes. Semi-finished metal shapes and stock include forms such as bar stock, rods, plates, strips, wire, shaped wire, hexagonal shapes, billets, sheets, and foil.  
   Fabricated Parts / Shapes       Materials are fabricated as custom or application-specific shapes. 
   Rod / Round Bar Stock       Materials are supplied or available as rod stock with a round cross-section. 
   Sheet       Materials can be supplied or available as sheets or foil. Sheets have a thickness between 0.006" and 0.250" and are 24" (609.6 mm) or larger in width. Typically, sheets are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling. 
   Strip       Materials are supplied or available as strips. Strips are usually 0.187" (3/16", 4.76 mm) or less in thickness and under 24" (609.6 mm) in width. Typically, strips are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling. 
   Wire / Shaped Wire       Materials are supplied or available as round wire, shaped wire, or flattened wire. Wire is less than 0.375" in diameter. 
   Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized or proprietary forms or stock types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Coil Stock?       Materials are supplied or available as coils, reels, or other wound stock forms. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Hollow Stock?       Materials are supplied or available as tubes, pipes, or hollow stock with an open internal bore. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
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Size / Dimensions
   Overall Width / OD       This is the overall width or outer diameter (OD) of stock forms such as bars, plates, and tubes. Overall width is the average particulate diameter for raw materials such as powders, granules, and pellets. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Length       This is the length of stock materials such as bars, rods, plates, and tubes. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Overall Thickness       This is the overall thickness of stock forms, tube walls, or other fabricated components. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   ID       This is the internal diameter (ID) or inner dimension of tubes or other hollow, stock shapes. 
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Grades & Specifications
   Standards / Specifications       
   Your choices are...         
   EN       European Norm or EuroNorm (EN) specifications have superseded several older, national designation systems such as BS, DIN, NS, and SS. 
   MIL-SPEC / Federal (QQS)       MIL-SPEC metals meet U.S. government standards and are suitable for military applications. QQ and QQS are prefixes used to designate specific metals. 
   JIS       Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specify the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through the Japanese Standards Association. 
   SAE       Products meet alloy grades, specifications, or designations established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   UNS       Metals or alloys meet the compositional standards in the Unified Numbering System (UNS), which was established by the ASTM, SAE, and several metal trade associations and societies. UNS identifies metals and alloys with a letter and five numbers. For example, carbon and alloy steels are identified as Gnnnnn, where G is the letter nnnnn is the number. 
   Specialty / Other       This refers to other unlisted, specialized, and OEM-specific (e.g., GE, P&W, Boeing, etc.) or proprietary material specifications. 
   AMS       Metals or alloys meet specific Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) guidelines established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). 
   ASTM / ASME       The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a non-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Most specifications from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) are adopted from or are very similar to ASTM specifications. 
   Casting Grade (ICI, etc.)       Ingot or alloy shapes meet the requirements for casting stock from the Alloy Casting Institute (ACI), the American Die Casting Institute (ADCI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Investment Casting Institute (ICI). 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   UNS R Number         
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Applications
   Applications:       
   Your choices are...         
   Aerospace / Aircraft (AQ)       Products are designed and rated for use in aerospace, aircraft, airport, space vehicle, satellite, rocket, interplanetary explorer, and space station applications. Aircraft quality (AQ) steels and alloys are manufactured to aerospace industry AMS 2301 standard specifications of cleanliness, chemistry, strength and mill traceability as well as exacting steelmaking, rolling, and testing practices.  Mission critical and highly stressed aircraft parts are fabricated from aircraft quality (AQ) steel alloys. Aircraft quality alloys are also used in non-aerospace applications for highly stressed, mission critical components involving additional stringent inspection requirements such as macro-etch limits, magnetic particle, or other NDT tests for inclusions or other defects. Certified aircraft quality steels have paperwork indicating the alloy is what it is supposed to be and what steel mill produced the product. 
   Abrasive / Erosive Wear Protection       Materials resist damage by abrasion or erosion, and protect underlying surfaces from abrasive or erosive wear. 
   Alternative / Renewable Energy       Companies evaluated alternative or renewable energy production products such as photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar power systems, wind turbines, hydro turbines, and flywheel power systems. 
   Automotive / Vehicular       Products are designed and rated for use in automobiles, trailer trucks, trailers, railcars, off-road trucks and other vehicles. 
   Armor / Ballistic Protection       Materials are used to protect equipment, vehicles, and/or personnel against damage from blasts, explosions, bullets, and other high-speed projectiles. 
   Bearings (BQ)       Bearing quality steels and alloys are produced in accordance with ASTM A 534, A 295, and A 485. Bearing quality steels are produced under restricted melting and special teeming, heating, rolling, and conditioning methods to meet the rigid bearing quality steel requirements. Bearing quality standards typically applies to alloy steel bars and tubes intended for the manufacture of races and balls or rollers in anti-friction bearings, oil well perforating gun bullets, dies, punches, shear and cutting blades, and cam rollers. Bearing quality level steels are usually produced from standard alloy carburizing grades and high-carbon chromium grades such as 52100 alloy steel. 
   Battery / Fuel Cell       Material is suitable for use in battery or fuel cell as a collector plate, proton exchange membrane, or catalyst. 
   Biocompatible / Biomaterial       Biomaterials are specially formulated or designed to have suitable biocompatibility for biotechnology and medical applications. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications.  
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave circuit, antennas, RMI and EFI shielding, and microelectronics interconnect. 
   Marine       Products are designed for use in marine applications aboard ships or in offshore settings. Uses include fishing, mooring, docks, jetties, platforms, piers, and ship construction such as hull and deck plates. 
   Mining       Alloys engineered for use in very corrosive and abrasive applications around mines and mining operations. Mining industry operation include excavation, water and slurry pumping, earth moving, and drilling under conditions where abrasive, corrosive, and erosive minerals, rocks, and soils are handled. 
   MRO (Repair / Resurfacing)       Metals and alloys are suitable for repair, hole or gap filling, patching, refinishing, resurfacing, and other maintenance and repair (MRO) applications.  
   Nuclear       Metals and alloy engineered for parts, products, capital equipment, or facilities used in the nuclear or utility industries. Nuclear grade stainless are manufactured to higher chemistry and cleanliness standards. Zirconium alloys such as Zircalloy are an excellent tube material choice for containment of uranium dioxide pellets because zirconium has a low neutron capture cross section. Inversely, hafnium has a high neutron capture cross section (neutron absorber) and is commonly used as a control rod alloy in nuclear reactors.  
   Oil and Gas       Metals and alloys are suitable for applications that can handle exposure to corrosive sour gases, erosive drilling and mining fluids, and abrasive minerals. Oil and gas industry applications entail extracting, synthesizing or processing oils, gases, or fuels such as well drilling, well maintenance, pumping, oil refining, re-refining, recovery, and recycling. Alloy products are designed and rated for use in oil wells and platforms, natural gas wells, refineries and in other energy exploration and extraction applications. 
   Pressure Vessel (PVQ)       Steels and stainless steels suitable for steam boiler, pressure vessel, and process reactor applications. Pressure vessel quality (PVQ) steels are manufactured to ASTM/ASME standards concerning chemical composition, mechanical properties, toughness, weldability, and hydrogen induced crack resistance. Pressure vessel quality steels are manufactured to higher cleanliness and quality standards compared to commercial grade steels. 
   Resistance Alloy / Heating       Metals and alloys engineered to have properties suitable for resistance heating element application. These metals and alloys are known as resistance alloys. Nichrome and Kanthal are common nickel based resistance alloys. Resistance alloys must have sufficient internal electrical resistance, high melting point, and sufficient elevated temperature strength. Resistance can vary with temperature and ideally the resistance is uniform in alloys to minimize variations with temperature or provide a linear change. In non-reducing, oxygen rich oven, furnace, and resistance heating applications, the resistance alloy must have high temperature oxidation resistance. In very high temperature vacuum and inert atmosphere furnaces, tungsten and molybdenum are commonly used.   
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and other mechanical properties. Metals can have much higher ductility and toughness compared to metals. 
   Wear Parts / Tooling       Wear-resistant metals are used in industrial products such as dies, molds, tooling, automotive rings, pump parts, valve seals/seats, stops, brake parts, clutch parts, and machining guides. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
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Features
   Features       
   Your choices are...         
   Coated       Metal or alloy stock or shapes are coated with a protective or decorative layer of paint, resin, plating, thermal spray deposit, or other organic or inorganic material. 
   Corrosion Resistant       These alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require corrosion resistance. 
   Heat Resistant / Hot Work       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require heat resistance. 
   Super Alloy       Superalloys are nickel, cobalt, or iron-based alloys with excellent elevated temperature strength, creep properties, and oxidation resistance. 
   Wear Resistant       Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require wear or erosion resistance. 
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Processing & Finish
           
   Your choices are...         
   Annealed       These metals and alloys are provided in an annealed or softened condition. Some materials anneal during thermal-mechanical processing depending on the process temperature range and alloy type. 
   Hardened / Heat Treated       Hardened or heat-treated metals and alloys are provided in a hard or hardened condition. Higher hardness or strength levels can be developed through work hardening (mechanical deformation), conventional quench and tempering hardening, aging, precipitation hardening, and other specialized heat treating processes. 
   Cast (Continuous, Centrifugal, etc.)       Cast alloy stocks or shapes are produced in a casting process such as continuous casting or centrifugal casting. 
   Extruded       These alloy stocks or shapes are produced by using an extrusion process. 
   Forged       Metal stock or shapes are available as forged billets, blooms, slabs, or bar stock. The forging process presses, pounds, or squeezes metal stock under very high pressure. Material flow occurs during the forging process, closing any internal porosity and refining the microstructure. 
   Hot Rolled       Hot rolled alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at an elevated temperature (e.g., steels in the "red" hot condition). This temperature is above the recrystallization point of the alloy. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation or a reduction of thickness. A post-annealing process is not required after hot rolling. Hot rolled metals tend to have more surface scale and require pickling and oiling. 
   Cold Finished / Rolled / Drawn       Alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at a temperature that is below the recrystallization point of the alloy. Rolling processes squeeze the metal between two steel rolls. Drawing processes pull the metal from a die opening or gap. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation as well as annealing during the process. Hot rolled metals tend to have more scale on their surface. 
   Powdered Metal (Compacted)       Powered metal stock or shapes are fabricated by consolidating or compacting powdered or atomized versions of the metal or alloy. Powder processing eliminates the possibility of large inclusions and can produce a finer structure compared to conventional wrought processes. 
   Wrought       Wrought metals or alloys are worked mechanically to refine their structure, break up inclusion, close porosity, and improve homogeneity.  
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   Finish       
   Your choices are...         
   Ground / Machined       The surface of the metal shape or stock is ground or machined, resulting in a better finish compared to the processed stock. The processed condition can be rolled, cast, extruded, forged, compacted, and sintered. 
   Polished       The surface of the metal shape or stock is polished or buffed, which provides a better finish compared to the rolled, ground, machined, or other processed stock conditions. Polishing uses fine grit, loose or fixed abrasive products to refine the surface finish to a mirror-like condition. Loose abrasive media could include abrasive slurries, polishing compounds, and lapping compounds. Fixed polishing abrasives could include lapping films, fine grit discs or belts, honing tools, and superfinishing products. 
   Other       Other unlisted proprietary, patented, or specialized finish, processing, heat treatment, or temper condition. 
   Rolled / Drawn       The wrought metal or alloy has been thermomechanically formed using rolling, drawing, hot rolling or cold rolling. 
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