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Application / Industry Use:

Sedimentation Equipment:

Gravity Filtration Equipment:

Vacuum Filtration Equipment:

Pressure Filtration Equipment:

Thickeners:

Clarifiers:

Centrifugal Separators:

Help with Filtration Equipment specifications:

Application / Industry Use Application ratings are based on published literature; consult supplier for unlisted or custom applications.
   Application / Industry Use:       
   Your choices are...         
   Adhesives       Products are designed to filter chemicals used in the manufacture of adhesives.  
   Chemicals       Products are rated for use with chemicals. This includes ratings for general chemical heating as well as corrosive chemicals such as acids and solvents. 
   Construction Materials       Products are designed to mix construction materials such as concrete and asphalt. 
   Cosmetics       Products are designed to process cosmetics. 
   Drinking Water       Products are designed to filter water so that it is suitable for human consumption. 
   Food and Beverage       Products are designed and rated for use with food or beverage processing applications, specifically the food, dairy, and brewing industries. 
   Heat Transfer Fluids       Products are designed to filter fluids used in heat transfer applications. 
   Oil / Fuel       Products are designed to filter oil or fuel. 
   Ore / Mineral       Products are designed for use in ore and mineral processing. 
   Paint / Coating       Products are designed to process paints and coatings. 
   Paper and Pulp       Products are designed for use in paper and pulp processing plants. 
   Sanitary / Pharmaceutical       Products are designed for sanitary and/or pharmaceutical applications. They are made of an easily sterilized material and are designed specifically for hygienic purposes such as medical, pharmaceutical, or food processing applications.  Usually, the equipment is certified by a national or international organization (USDA, FDA, etc.); however, this is not required. 
   Waste / Sludge       Products are designed to filter wastewater. 
   Other       Products are designed for unlisted or specialized applications. 
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Equipment Process / Type There are many ways to classify solid / liquid filtration and separation equipment.  Some examples are:
  1. By driving force (gravity, pressure, vacuum centrifuge)
  2. By filtration mechanism (filter medium)
  3. By process goal (cake, clarified liquid, or both)
  4. By operating cycle (continuous or batch)
  5. By the nature of the solids (particle size)
  6. By process stage (pretreatment, solids concentration, solids separation)
The table below relates the above classifications for each process or equipment type.
   Sedimentation Equipment:      Sedimentation is a gravitational or chemical process that causes particles to settle to the bottom.
   Your choices are...         
   All Sedimentation Equipment       This selection will return all sedimentation products, including gravity sedimentation, flocculation, and others. 
   Flocculation       Flocculation is the formation of a cake or aggregate, usually through a chemical process, although a magnetic field may be used for particles containing iron. Flocculation is an important process in the treatment of wastewater. 
   Gravity Sedimentation       Gravity sedimentation is used to reduce the solids concentration of the material to be processed. It can be either a clarification or a thickening process. In gravity sedimentation, the heavier particles sink to the bottom under the force of gravity. The rate of settling varies depending on the difference in density between the liquid phase and the solids and the size of the solid particles. 
   Other       Other unlisted sedimentation equipment. 
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   Gravity Filtration Equipment:      Gravity filtration uses the hydrostatic pressure of the prefilter column above the filter surface to generate the flow of the filtrate.
   Your choices are...         
   All Gravity Filters       This selection will return all gravity filtration products, including bag filters, sand filters, gravity nutsches, and others. 
   Bag Filter       Bag filters are used mainly as collection equipment. They use bag-shaped woven-fabric or felt filters. Bag filters are not recommended for process filtration. 
   Cross-Flow / Tangential Filter       Cross-flow or tangential filters (CFF/TFF) feed the flow tangentially across the surface of the filter membrane or media. 
   Gravity Nutsche       A gravity nutsche is a tank with a perforated or porous false bottom. It may or may not have a separate filter medium. The hydrostatic head of the slurry in the tank provides the filtration driving force. 
   Sand Filter       The sand filter is the most common type of gravity filter. It consists of a tank containing layers of gravel and sand or pulverized anthracite. The size of the bed particle decreases from bottom to top of the bed. This granular bed forms the filter media. Sand filters are clarifying equipment used, although a cake may form on the surface. They are used almost exclusively for water conditioning. 
   Other       Other unlisted gravity filtration equipment. 
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   Vacuum Filtration Equipment:      Vacuum filters are available in batch (vacuum nutsches and vacuum leaf filters) and continuous (drum filters, disk filters and horizontal filters) operating cycles.  Continuous vacuum filters are widely used in the process industry.  The three main classes of continuous vacuum filters are drum, disk, and horizontal filters.  All of these vacuum filters have the following common features:
  • A filtering surface that moves from a point where a cake is deposited under a vacuum to a point of solids removal, where the cake is discharged through mechanical or pneumatic means, and then back to the point of slurry application.
  • A valve to regulate pressure below the surface.
  • An apparently continuous operating cycle that is actually a series of closely spaced batch cycles.
   Your choices are...         
   All Vacuum Filters       This selection will return all vacuum filters, including horizontal belt filters, tray filters, rotary drum filters, rotary drum precoat filters, disc filters, tilting pan filters, table filters, vacuum nutsches, vacuum leaf filters, and others. 
   Disc Filter       Disc filters are constructed of several large discs, up to 15 in larger machines. Each disc consists of sectors clamped together to form a disc. The ribs between the sectors of the disc lead radially towards the neck at the center of the disc. The filter is fed from the side. A cake forms on the face of the disc as it rotates. It then enters a drying zone and the filtrate drains to the center barrel and then through a valve to the vacuum receiver. Scraper blades on the side of each disc remove the cake to discharge chutes. They are generally used for heavy duty applications such as dewatering of iron ore taconite, coal, aluminum hydrate, copper concentrate, and other beneficiation processes. 
   Horizontal Belt Filter       Horizontal belt filters are the most common type of vacuum filter. They are constructed of an endless, recirculating rubber belt with traversing grooves that drain the filtrate towards holes on the belt. The filtrate drains through the holes in the belt while the cake is carried along the belt and discharged at the end. 
   Rotary Drum Filter       Rotary drum filters consist of a large drum divided into circumferential sectors. Each sector forms a separate vacuum cell. Each sector has internal piping that connects to a port on the end of the trunnion that supports the drum. The slurry is fed to the bottom of the rotating drum and the cake is discharged on the descending side of the drum. The pipes collect the filtrate as the drum rotates. Depending on the construction, there can be leading pipes to collect filtrate on the rising side of the drum, training pipes to collect filtrate on the descending side, or both. The discharge mechanism can be a scraper, belt, or roll. 
   Rotary Drum Precoat Filter       Rotary drum precoat filters are used to polish liquid solutions with trace amounts of suspended solids. They are similar in appearance to rotary drum filters, but the construction is very different. The drum is precoated with a medium of known permeability and particle size. The contaminated feed is delivered to the outside of the drum and scraped off on the opposite side. On a precoat filter, the scraper blade moves slowly toward the drum, removing the layer of contaminants along with a thin layer of the precoat material, creating a fresh layer of precoat surface for the next pass. Rotary drum filters have a stationary blade.  
   Table Filter       Table filters were first introduced in the 1940s. They are fed from the top and consist of a series of trapezoidal sections arranged in a circular pattern to form a rotating table. Each section is connected to a stationary valve in the center of the filter. The slurry is confined by an internal ring fixed to the table around the center and a continuous rubber belt around the outside diameter. The cake is discharged via a variable pitch screw. These filters can operate at high vacuum levels and handle thick cakes. 
   Tilting Pan Filter       The tilting pan filter is top-fed and used mainly in the phosphoric acid industry. Tilting pan filters are constructed of a series of horizontal trapezoidal pans arranged in a rotating circular structure. As the structure rotates the cake is washed, usually in three stages, and the filtrate flows to a vacuum receiver. After the cake passes through the final drying phase the cycle the pan tilts and the cake is discharged. Pan filters can be configured for wet or dry cake discharge. 
   Tray Filter       The tray filter is top-fed and is distinguished by its lack of a rubber belt. It is primarily used for thin cakes, although some machines are available for thick cakes. Two different design concepts are used for tray filters, both consisting of a cycle where the vacuum is turned on and off.
  • In the first type, a cloth moves continuously over reciprocating trays. The vacuum is on during the forward stroke and then switches off during the reverse stroke.
  • In the second design, the cloth moves over fixed trays. The cloth stops with the vacuum on during the filtration phase and then switches off to allow the cloth to move forwards.
 
   Vacuum Nutsche       Nutsche filters are designed to operate under either pressure or a vacuum. The majority of these filters operate under pressure in batch type processes, such as fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. Vacuum nutsches are self-contained vessels that filter, dry, and separate chemical mixtures while removing vapors and emissions. Nutsche filters can be used in hazardous and explosion-proof environments and with flammable, toxic, and corrosive materials due to their autoclaved design. The design of the nutsche filter consists of a vessel, a filter floor and filter media (cloth, woven mesh screen, or sintered metal plate), rake arms for cake washing and smoothing, and a cake discharge mechanism. The cake can be discharged through the bottom center or out the side of the vessel. 
   Other       Other unlisted vacuum filtration equipment. 
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   Pressure Filtration Equipment:      Pressure filters operate at superatmospheric pressures at the filtering surface.  The media is fed to the machine by diaphragm, plunger, screw and centrifugal pumps, blowcases and streams from pressure reactors.   Most pressure filters are batch, or semi-continuous, machines.  Rotary drum pressure filters and some others have continuous operating cycles.  Continuous machines are more expensive and less flexible than batch machines.
   Your choices are...         
   All Pressure Filters       All pressure filters, including automatic filters, candle filters, filter presses, horizontal plate, nutsche, vertical pressure leaf filters, and others. 
   Automatic Pressure Filter       Automatic pressure filters resemble filter presses, but with pressure plates stacked vertically instead of horizontally, changing the direction of filtration to the vertical direction. The slurry is fed under pressure into chambers formed by the plates between a rubber diaphragm and a cloth filtering belt. After cake formation, the diaphragm compresses the remaining liquid from the cake prior to cake washing or discharge. The plates, which are stacked tightly, then separate and the belt indexes forward to move the cake to a discharge chute. Automatic pressure filters are constructed of the following main components:
  • A frame that supports the plates and the two hydraulic rams that open and close the plates during the filtration cycle.
  • The filter cloth that both filters and transports the cake.
  • The chambers that are constructed of a recessed upper plate with an attached rubber diaphragm and a discharge roller, and a lower plate with that supports the filtering cloth.
  • A pump that inflates the diaphragm to a pressure of 16 bars during the filtering cycle.
 
   Candle Filter       Candle filters operate on a batch cycle, as do all pressure filters. They are used for processing fine chemicals, brine clarification, red mud, china clay, and other applications requiring low moisture cake filtration or a high degree of polishing. They are also used as thickeners to produce concentrated flowable slurry. This is possible due to their ability to operate with short cycle times combined with high filtration rates. When used for thickening, candle filters produce a clear filtrate, while gravity thickeners always contain a certain amount of suspended solids. Candle filters get their name from their cylindrically shaped filter elements that resemble candles. Larger filters may contain 250 such elements. The main components of the candle filter are the vessel, the filter elements, and the cake discharge mechanism. 
   Cross-flow Microsand       Cross-Flow Microsand feeds the flow tangentially across a microsand surface under pressure resulting in sub-micron filtration. 
   Filterpress       Filterpresses have been around for many years and are used mainly for dewatering waste sludge. They consist of a head and follower contained between a pack of vertical rectangular plates supported by side or overhead beams. The follower moves along the beams and presses the plates into the stationary head via a hydraulic or mechanical mechanism. Feed and filtrate pipes are connected to the head. Each plate has a filter cloth on each side and form chambers when pressed together. The feed port passes through the center of the entire press. They are constructed of shuttle shifters that separate the plates one after another for cake discharge, shakers that vibrate the plates to assist in cake discharge, and cloth showers for cloth washing. 
   Horizontal Plate Pressure Filter       Horizontal plate pressure filters are constructed of a vertical stack of horizontal plates attached to a hollow shaft and mounted inside a pressure vessel. Each plate is covered with a filter medium. The slurry is fed under pressure into the vessel and the cake that is contained by the filter medium, forms on the top of each plate. The filtrate passes through the hollow shaft. They are used in fine chemical process industries, and also in heavier industries such as fertilizers and precious metals where the end product is a cake and low moisture and efficient washing are required. 
   Polishing Filter       Polishing filters are used to remove and recover solids in low concentrations from process liquids. The polishing filtration stage increases production capacity, boosts the quality of plant and refinery end products, and reduces emissions to the environment. 
   Vertical Pressure Leaf Filter       Vertical pressure leaf filters resemble horizontal plate filters except the filter elements are vertical instead of horizontal. They are mainly used for polishing slurries with solids contents of 1-5% or for filtering cakes with a 20-25% solids concentration. They are constructed of vertical leaves (filter elements), a vertical or horizontal vessel and a gravity cake discharge mechanism. Slurry enters the vessel under pressure, the cake forms on the leaves and the filtrate drains through a system of manifolds centrally located on the bottom of each leaf. Leaf spacing may vary from 30-100mm, depending on the application. 
   Other       Other unlisted pressure filtration equipment. 
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   Thickeners:      Thickeners are used to separate solids from liquids by means of gravity sedimentation.  Most thickeners are larger, continuous operation pieces of equipment.  They are used for heavy duty applications such as coal, iron ore taconites, copper pyrite, phosphates and other beneficiation processes.
   Your choices are...         
   All Thickeners       This selection will return all thickeners, including conventional, high rate, lamella, tray, and others. 
   Conventional Thickener       Conventional thickeners, also called single-compartment or unit thickeners, are circular, continuously operating thickeners. Conventional thickeners impart downward velocity to the feed via feedwells. Different design variations include the following:
  • Bridge-supported thickeners are most common in diameters up to 100 feet. They are constructed of two long (and sometimes two short) arms that rotate around the center of the thickener. Each arm contains several blades that scrape the bottom surface. The bridge that spans the take is of either beam or truss design. The discharge is through a cone centrally located in the bottom of the tank.
  • Center-column-supported thickeners are usually 75 feet or more in diameter. A central, stationary column constructed of steel or concrete supports the raking arm mechanism.
  • Traction thickeners use a motorized carriage that rides on the tank wall. A driving truss extends from the carriage to the rotating center cage. 
 
   High Rate Thickener       High rate thickeners use a process where minerals are flocculated, mixed within a feedwell and then uniformly injected into a hindered settling zone. High rate thickeners are distinguished from conventional thickeners by the following attributes:
  • A deep feedwell
  • A controlled bed level
  • Deaeration of the feed
  • A mechanism for more evenly distributing the feed within the thickener
 
   Lamella Thickener       Lamella thickeners are also called baffle plate thickeners, lamella clarifiers, lamella settlers, and lamella separators. They consist of a series of inclined flat plates, called lamellas. Lamella thickeners feature compact size, ease of installation, and an even flow distribution. 
   Tray Thickener       Tray thickeners consist of a tank vertically divided into compartments by steel trays that slope towards the center compartment. The feed is evenly distributed to each compartment. Each tray has a set of rake arms that scrape the surface of the tray. The thickened solid works its way down to each tray through gravity sedimentation to the bottom compartment where they are withdrawn. 
   Other       Other unlisted thickener equipment. 
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   Clarifiers:      The primary end product of clarifiers is a clarified liquid.  They are virtually identical in design to thickeners, but have a lighter duty drive mechanism.  They are generally used for industrial and residential waste.
   Your choices are...         
   All Clarifiers       This selection will return all clarifiers, including conventional clarifiers, reverse osmosis equipment, sludge-blanket, suction, and other clarifiers. 
   Conventional Clarifier       A conventional clarifier is a gravity sedimentation tank / settler whose primary end product is a clarified liquid. It is virtually identical in design to conventional thickeners, except it employs a lighter duty mechanism. They are available in rectangular or circular configurations. 
   Sludge-blanket Clarifier       Sludge-blanket clarifiers are upflow clarifiers. The water flows upward from the bottom of the clarifier through a blanket of suspended solids that acts as a filter. The clarifier contains an inverted cone that produces an increasing cross-sectional area from the bottom of the clarifier to the top. The upward velocity or the water decreases at it nears the top. At some point the upward velocity of the water balances the downward velocity of the solid particle and the particle becomes suspended. The heavier particles are suspended closer to the bottom while the lighter ones are suspended closer to the surface. As the water containing flocculated solids passes up through this blanket, the particles are absorbed onto the larger floc, which increases the floc size and drops it down to a lower level. It eventually falls to the bottom of the clarifier to be recirculated or drawn off. 
   Suction Clarifier       Suction type clarifiers use a  vacuum system to collect the sludge from the bottom of the tank. They are used for secondary and final clarification processes. 
   Reverse Osmosis       Reverse osmosis (RO) involves separating water from a solution of dissolved solids by forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane. As pressure is applied to the solution, water and other molecules with low molecular weight (less than 200 g/mole) pass through micropores in the membrane. The membrane retains larger molecules, such as organic dyes and metal complexes. RO membrane systems feature crossflow filtration to allow the concentrate stream to sweep away retained molecules and prevent the membrane surface from clogging or fouling. 
   Other       Other unlisted clarifier equipment. 
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   Centrifugal Separators:      Centrifugal separators use centrifugal force to separate solid particles from a liquid solution.
   Your choices are...         
   All Centrifugal Separators       This selection will return all centrifugal separators, including centrifuges, hydrocyclones, and others. 
   Centrifuge       Centrifuges separate particles from a solution according to particle size, shape, and density; the viscosity of the medium; and the rotor speed. The theoretical basis of this technique is the effect of gravity on particles (including macromolecules) in suspension. In response to gravity, two particles of different masses will settle in a tube. Centrifugal force (measured as xg, gravity) is used to increase this settling rate. As the force that an object moving in a circular path exerts on the object that constrains it, centrifugal force acts radially outward from the center of rotation. 
   Hydrocyclone       Hydrocyclones use centrifugal force to separate particulate elements of different sizes, shapes, and densities. The liquid to be filtered enters the hydrocyclone and begins a rotational flow pattern. The particles within this flow are subjected to centrifugal forces, are thus forced to the outside wall of the hydrocyclone. They then fall to the bottom, where they are discharged. 
   Other       Other unlisted centrifugal separators. 
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