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Dryer Type:

Heat Source / Transfer:

Secondary Process Capabilities:

Operating Temperature:

Process Rate:

Air Flow:

Evaporation Rate:

Material Form:

Applications / Materials Processed:

Help with Process Dryers specifications:

Dryer Type
           
   Your choices are...         
   Air Bars / Flotation Dryer       Air bars produce dispersed drying air. Flotation dryers use a series of air bars or louvers to support and gently dry webs of fragile materials. 
   Impingement Dryer       Hot air impingement dryers use blasts of hot air to convectively dry moving webs, boards, or other large bulk materials. 
   Belt Conveyor Dryer       Conveyor drying uses a perforated belt to transfer feed materials through the dryer. Heated air is either passed under and through, or over and through the belt and product bed before being reheated and re-circulated. Units usually have multiple zones, and may have differing airflow in successive zones. Additionally, each zone may use a different temperature profile and control. Saturated or almost saturated air is exhausted from the dryer via a central exhaust duct. 
   Calciner / Rotary Tube       Calciners remove bound water from a material. A calciner consists of an angled drum tube that passes through a furnace. The tube, which is in direct contact with the tube feed, is heated either by electrical elements or by gas burners. Special lifters within the drum promote the exposure of the feed to the heated surfaces by a rolling motion of the material. The product is discharged through a suitable airlock device. 
   Centrifugal Dryer       Centrifugal dryers use a spinning action to mechanically enhance the removal of water, and to increase drying line speed. Typically, centrifugal dryers are used for discrete parts or products, or after washing of these components. 
   Chamber Dryer       Chamber-type dryers consist of a heated chamber that is usually heated to a higher temperature than other dryers. 
   Column / Cascade Dryer       Column dryers consist of tall, vertical vessels often with baffles to cascade the material. Powders or bulk materials are fed down through the column and heated by contact with baffles or drying air.  
   Conical / Tumbler Dryer       Conical dryers are available in rotating and non-rotating styles. The rotating styles have a rotating or tumbling housing that keeps the media in motion to prevent media buildup. The non-rotating styles have internal moving components that also keep the media in motion to prevent buildup. 
   Continuous Tray / Turbo Tray Dryer       Continuous tray dryers have a series of horizontal plates or trays with a single slot. Material is fed onto the top tray. A series of plows wipes the material from the trays and drops it onto the next tray. Hot air is circulated up through the unit to dry the material. 
   Disc Dryer       Disc dryers are drum-shaped units that are filled with a series heated discs. Disc motion or airflow is used to move powders or bulk material through the dryer. Often, steam is used to heat the discs. 
   Cylinder / Roll Dryer (External)       Cylinder or roll dryers usually consist of a steam-heated drum with a smooth outer surface around which a moving web or sheet is passed for drying. 
   Evaporator       Evaporators use a mechanically-created vortex to force a liquid sample outward against the tube walls. This increases surface area for faster evaporation and maximum sample recovery. Liquid can also be removed by gentle heating at atmospheric pressure with flowing air, an inert gas, or under vacuum conditions. 
   Festoon / Loop Dryer       Festoon or loop dryers are used to heat webs or continuous sheets with minimal contact. The web is supported on bars or threaded onto movable idler rolls that are driven by a conveyor. Festoon dryers are used to dry or cure coated abrasive webs, flocked wall paper or coated fabrics. 
   Roller / Flaker - Dryer       Rollers or flakers are dryers where a film of a slurry, paste, or melt is fed onto a drum or belt. The material is dried or solidified and then flaked off with a doctor blade. The drum or belt can be heated or cooled. 
   Flash / Pneumatic Dryer       Flash dryers offer an effective method of removing surface or unbound moisture from a feed product. The technology behind flash drying employs a low residence time within the actual dryer; thus, the unbound moisture is "flashed" off the feed. Flash dryers, pneumatic dryers, ring dryers, and flash tube or cyclone dryers use a heated carrier gas (usually, air) to pneumatically convey the feed through the flash dryer (flash tube) and into a primary gas-separation device (most commonly, a cyclone or series of cyclones in series or parallel). The carrier is induced or forced into the feed throat from a hot gas generator that heats the gas to the desired operating inlet temperature. In the feed throat, the gas entrains the feed, and the moisture is evaporated quickly as the product is conveyed through the system to the primary gas / product separation device. Because the entire product is entrained in the gas stream, both primary product collection (typically, cyclones) and secondary and tertiary dust collection (such as multicyclones, bag houses, scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators) usually are installed to meet emission limits. Flash dryers are an efficient method of drying products such as slurries, pastes and sludge (most with back mixing), friable filter cakes, powders and granules. 
   Fluidized Bed Dryer       In fluidized bed dryers, a bed of material is fluidized through vibration or air flow. The powders are then dried by direct heating from hot air or combusted gas flow (direct) or through contact with heated surfaces (indirect). In general, fluid bed dryers operate on a through-the-bed flow pattern with the gas passing through the product perpendicular to the direction of travel. In batch operation, a dose of feed is metered into the dryer bowl and processed until the desired final moisture has been attained. For continuous systems, wet feed is introduced by being metered into the drying section (zone) by means of a suitable feeder. The dry product is discharged from the same section. In direct systems, hot gas is introduced into the dryer's wind box or plenum. The plenum is a "pressurized box" that distributes the gas evenly across the distributor or fluidizing plate that separates the product from the wind box. The fluidizing plate is a proprietarily-designed perforated plate that has either non-directional or directional holes (nozzles), with or without caps, through which the gas passes. The process gas passes from the wind box into the drying chamber and interacts with the feed, lifting and maintaining the feed in a fluidized state termed a bed. The bed attains fluid-like properties, flowing and mixing in a similar fashion to a liquid. The fluidization provides intimate contact between each material particle and the gas stream, creating an efficient transfer device. 
   Freeze Dryer       Freeze drying, or lyophilization, is used for the reliable preservation of a wide variety of heat sensitive products and demands the highest standards of reliability and control. 
   Pan Dryer       Pan dryers are specialized units designed to dry sensitive pharmaceutical and chemicals. Pan dryers consist of a heated lower pan in an enclosed vessel under air, vacuum or a pressurized cover gas. The pan may rotate or a rotating agitator bar may be used to prevent sticking and improve drying uniformity.  
   Paddle / Agitator Dryer       Blades, paddles, breaker bars or other internal agitation devices are used to break up and disperse the material to improve drying uniformity and prevent agglomeration. Paddle dryers typically consist of a long trough or drum along which runs a shaft holding the paddles. 
   Predryer       Predryers or preheaters provide initial heating or drying of a material before the unit is passed into a larger dryer. Often, radiant heating dryers are used to pre-dry webs before the material is fed into a hot-air dryer. 
   Rotary Dryer (Internal Drum)       Rotary dryers feed the material into a tumbling or rotating drum called a tumbler. The drum is heated or heated air is fed into the unit. The internal surface of the drum may have baffles or louvers to channel the hot air or cascade the material.  Rotary cascade dryers pass feed materials through a rotating cylinder together with a stream of hot gas. Internal lifters or flights elevate the feed and drop it in a curtain from the top to the bottom cascading along the length of the dryer. Flights need to be carefully designed to prevent asymmetry of the curtain. Material moves from one end of the dryer to the other by the motion of the material falling due to the angle of inclination of the drum. Some rotary dryers are double and triple pass units where each drum is nested inside the previous drum. Rotary louver dryers have the feed materials supported and moving over a set of louvers mounted to an external rotating drum. The hot gas is introduced into a tapered bustle below the feed ring. The air passes through the louvers and then the product before being exhausted from the dryer. The rotation of the drum causes the material to roll and mix providing intimate contact with the drying gas. Material moves from one end of the dryer to the other by the motion of rolling, some fluidization and due to the angle of inclination of the drum. 
   Screw / Auger Conveyor Dryer       Screw or auger conveyor dryers use a screw conveyor to agitate and feed a powder or bulk material through the dryer. 
   Spray Dryer       Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. A spray dryer consists of a feed pump, atomizer, air heater, air disperser, drying chamber, and systems for exhaust air cleaning and powder recovery. 
   Steam Tube Dryer       Steam tube dryers are drum-shaped dryers with a series of internally mounted and spaced tubes. Steam passes through the tubes and bulk material or powders are indirectly heated through contact with the heated tubes (tubular rotary). 
   Straight Pass Dryer       Straight pass or flatbed dryers are used to dry continuous webs or sheets that cannot be wrapped around a cylinder or festoon rack.  
   Suction Drum Dryer       Suction drum dryers consist of a series of perforated cylinders or drums with an internal vacuum. Web or sheet materials are held against the drum by the vacuum or suction generated as a fan draws air from the interior of the drum. This suction holds the material to the surface of the drum, permitting air to pass through the material being dried. A portion of the drum at the transfer has no suction and permits the material to transfer to the next drum without interference. 
   Thin Film Dryer       With thin film dryers, a wiper deposits a thin layer onto the inner surface of a drum. The thinness of the layer promotes rapid drying. 
   Tray / Cabinet / Tunnel Dryer       Tunnel dryers consist of an oven-like enclosure. The material is loaded onto trucks or trays that are stacked on a movable truck.  The trucks are rolled into the tunnel where the material is dried. Air is drawn in through an inlet duct and heated to the required temperature for drying. The heated air is then distributed from side-to-side, or bottom-to-top, in a circular motion. The system can be automated with the trucks on a trolley, being moved in and out continuously. 
   Vacuum Dryer       Vacuum dryers use an applied vacuum to accelerate drying.  Vacuums can alter vapor pressure to enhance evaporation rates. They can also increase the drawing out of liquids in pastes by capillary pressure. 
   Vibratory Dryer       Vibratory dryers use a vibratory action to agitate, feed or fluidize powders or other bulk materials. 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary dryer types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Heat Source / Transfer:       
   Your choices are...         
   Waste Heat       Waste heat is heat generated or left over from another process. 
   Direct / Convection       Hot air or combusted (or heated) gas is directly circulated though the material being dried, to convectively heat and evaporate moisture.  
   Combustion       Dryers use heat generated by the combustion of gas, oil, biomass, waste products, or other fuels. The combusted gas may heat the material either directly or indirectly. 
   Electric       Electrical resistance heating 
   Indirect / Contact / Conduction       Walls, tubes, jackets or discs are heated by steam, gas, thermal oil, or hot air. These heated elements transfer their heat to materials that come in contact with them via conduction. Indirect dryers may be useful when contact with combustible gas or hot air is not desirable due to product or process requirements. 
   Radiant / Infrared       Dryers use radiant heat generated by electric or gas-fired infrared heaters. Radiant heat dryers are useful for drying surfaces, flat products or web materials where a clear line of sight can be provided. Straight pass infrared dryers are used to pre-dry web materials before these materials are fed into a conventional, direct, hot dryer. 
   Steam       Steam dryers are indirect dryers that use equilibrium or superheated steam. Typically, the steam is passed through tubes (as in a steam tube dryer) or through a jacket or wall passage (as in pan or rotary drum dryers). 
   Thermal Oil / Fluid       Thermal oil or fluid is heated and used to indirectly transfer heat to a material through a process wall, jackets, discs or other surfaces. 
   RF / Microwave / Dielectric       Radio frequency (RF) generators create an alternating electric field between two electrodes. The material to be heated and dried is conveyed or placed between the electrodes where the alternating energy causes polar molecules in the material to continuously reorient themselves to face opposite poles, much like the way bar magnets behave in an alternating magnetic field. The friction resulting from molecular movement causes the material to rapidly heat throughout its entire mass. Areas in the material with greater moisture content heat up and dry faster. 
   Other       Other unlisted or specialized heat sources. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Secondary Process Capabilities:       
   Your choices are...         
   Agglomeration / Granulation       Granules or agglomerates can be formed from powder or fibrous feeds. 
   Classification / Screening       Dryers have integral classification or screening capability 
   Coating       Dryers allow coating of the material before, during, or after drying. 
   Cooling / Freezing       Materials can be cooled or frozen during or after drying. 
   Crystallization       Materials such as PET plastic can be crystallized. 
   Filtration       Dryers having integral filtration capabilities. Water may be filtered off to reduce the drying time. 
   Moisturizing / Humidifying       Dryers can restore a level of moisture to an over-dried and possibly brittle product. 
   Preheating       Dryers have an integral preheater or preheating capability. For instance, a slurry could be preheated in a tank before introduction to a drum dryer. This technique reduces the heating demands on the drying unit and increasing line speed. 
   Washing / Rinsing       Dryers have an integral washing or rinsing capability. For example, in some pharmaceutical applications, the product may be passed through several rinse and dry cycles to remove liquor. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Performance Specifications
   Operating Temperature       The operating temperature in the dryer. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Process Rate       The linear rate that the web moves through the dryer. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Air Flow       The velocity that air flows through the dryer. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Evaporation Rate       The rate that water and other fluids are removed in the dryer. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Application / Media Selections
   Material Form:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bulk Materials / Briquettes       Dryers are used with briquettes, pellets, or other larger bulk solids. 
   Discrete Parts / Products       Dryers are used with discrete parts, packages, bottles, boards or finished products. Air knives or fans are often applied for these applications. 
   Free Flowing Powders / Granules       Dryers are used with powders and granular materials. 
   Fibers / Flakes       Dryers are designed for fibers, flakes, or other powders with poor flow characteristics. Agitators, fluidizers, or other specialized devices may be used to facilitate drying of these materials. 
   Pastes       Pastes are thick, sludge-like mixtures of liquids and solids.  Specialized feeding, extruding or mixing devices are sometimes used in dryers designed for processing pastes. 
   Slurries       Slurries are dispersions of solids or powders in liquids. Spray, fluidized bed, or rotary drum-type dryers are used to process slurries. 
   Solutions / Liquids       Dryers are designed for solutions (liquids that contain dissolved salts or other chemicals), colloidal suspensions, emulsions of two liquids, or two or more mutually soluble liquids. Spray dryers, fluidized bed dryers, or evaporator dryers are used to process liquids or solutions. 
   Webs / Continuous Sheets       Webs are continuous-sheet materials such as paper, cardboard, textiles, plastic films, metal sheet, strip, non-woven mats or printed newspaper. Webs are processed with festoon, cylinder, straight pass or flat bed, and suction drum dryers. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Applications / Materials Processed:       
   Your choices are...         
   Abrasives / Ceramics       Equipment is suitable for drying abrasives, green ceramics, refractories, or clay bodies before firing. 
   Adhesives / Curing       Equipment is used for drying adhesives or binders. Radiant heat dryers are useful for drying adhesive layers on surfaces, as well as flat products or web materials where a clear line of sight can be provided. Rotary drum and fluidized bed dryers are useful in drying the binders that form and hold together agglomerates. 
   Chemicals / Fertilizers       Equipment is suitable for the drying of fertilizers, waxes, salts, or other inorganic or organic chemicals. 
   Construction Materials / Cement       Cement, limestone, gravel, sand, brick, grog, clay, shale, or asphalt. 
   Electronics / Semiconductors       Equipment is used in semiconductor or electronic manufacturing (e.g., the drying of wafers after etching and rinsing steps). 
   Foods / Grains       Equipment is used to dry liquid, solid, and liquid-solid mixtures of food products such as grain, milk, dried potatoes, apples, sugar, spices, vegetables, or other foods. 
   Metallurgical       Equipment is used for drying metal sheet, metal powders, carbide powders, metal casting or finished products, slags or other components used in winning metals (smelting), or scrap metal prior to recycling.  
   Mining / Ores / Minerals       Dryers are used with ores and minerals for subsequent extraction processing. 
   Paint / Coatings       Equipment is used for drying paints or coatings. Radiant heat dryers are useful for drying paint layers or coatings on surfaces, as well as flat products or web materials where a clear line of sight can be provided. Straight pass infrared or forced hot air dryers are also useful in drying thin, painted layers or printed patterns. 
   Pharmaceutical       Equipment is designed specifically for use in processing pharmaceuticals. 
   Polymers / Molding       Equipment is suitable for drying plastics, elastomers, rubbers or other polymeric materials in pellet, finish product, or sheet forms.  
   Power / Coal and Coke       Equipment is used for drying coal or coke, as well as ash in power generation applications. 
   Pulp and Paper       Equipment is used for drying cellulose feeds, cotton fiber, or pulp for the production of paper, paperboard, fiber and other paper products. 
   Sanitary       Equipment is designed for sanitary applications. Dryers are constructed of an easily sterilized material and are designed specifically for hygienic purposes such as medical, pharmaceutical, or food processing applications. Usually, the equipment is certified by a national or international organization (USDA, FDA, etc.), but this is not required. 
   Textiles / Nonwovens       Equipment is used to dry woven cloth webs or non-woven mats of nylon, cotton, fiberglass, or other fibrous materials.  
   Waste / Sludge       Equipment is used for drying solid wastes, soil reclamation materials, or waste water sludge. 
   Wood / Wood Products       Equipment is used for drying lumber, forest products (logs), wood boards, particle board, plywood or wood chips 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary applications. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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