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   Adsorption / Desorption (Chemisorption/ Physisorption)       Instruments or test equipment are designed for adsorption and desorption studies. Adsorption is the physicochemical adhesion of a substance (liquid, gas, or dissolved solids sorbate) onto the surface of a solid or liquid. Adsorption results in the accumulation of molecules of gases, or ions or molecules of liquids, at the surfaces of contacting solids or liquids. Desorption is the release of the molecular layer of the adsorbed on the surface of an absorbent. Desorption can be caused by high temperature, high humidity, or scalping. Chemisorption is the process by which sorbates are adsorbed and chemically changed by a reaction with the sorbent material. Physisorption is the process where molecules are physically bonded to the surface by Van der Vals and weak dipole forces. Physisorption processes are more reversible, and weaker bonds are formed compared to chemisorption processes. Sorption, adsorption, and desorption can be determined by measuring weight changes of the sorbate material.  
   Absorption / Water Absorption       Tester evaluates the amount of water absorbed by a material. Absorption differs from adsorption. Adsorption refers to accumulation or vapor or water onto the surface of a material, while absorption indicates the water is taken in past the surface and into the material itself.  Plastics and paper materials can have varying degrees of water absorption. 
   Brittleness / Friability       Brittleness or friability is a measure of how easily a material can be fractured, crushed, or broken. Brittleness can be determined by impacting the material with a controlled load. A very friable plastic, mineral, or abrasive would be considered weak and easily crushed or broken. A low-friability abrasive or mineral would be considered tougher and more difficult to mill or crush. The brittle point or ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is determined by testing a material at a series of decreasing temperatures until brittle behavior is observed. 
   Cloud Point (CP)       Cloud point (CP) is the temperature at which the dissolved solids in a sample separate out. As the term suggests, cloud point temperature is reached when a previously clear solution becomes cloudy. When diesel fuels or oils decrease in temperature, a wax separates out and forms a floating cloudiness on the surface. Paraffin wax deposits can plug-up fuel or oil filters. Cloud point (CP) can be thought of as the solubility limit of the sample in that particular solution. The minor sample-rich phase separates as small droplets are dispersed in the major water-rich phase. Cloud point temperature has largely replaced cold filter plug point (CFPP). CFPP testing requires a more complicated test procedure than CP testing. 
   Compactability / Compressibility       Testers or test equipment determine the compactability or compressibility of materials. These properties can be important in understanding the processing or end-use function of powders, foams, filter media and other compressible or porous materials. 
   Consistency / % Solids       Consistency is the amount of dry solids (% solids) or fibers in pulp or paper stock. It determines how the pulp can be formed and processed into paper. If the consistency is too thin or too thick, a paper web will not form properly. The specific consistency required depends on the paper-forming equipment used and the product being formed. 
   Contamination       Contamination analysis determines the amount of dirt, inclusion, slag, shives, swarf, grinding debris, bacterial, microbial or other undesirable foreign contaminants in a material.  Food, beverage, cosmetic, drug, medical, biotech and pharmaceutical products evaluation of the cleanliness, hygiene or level of sterilization is very important. Specialized instruments or test equipment evaluate the cleanliness, hygiene or level of sterilization applied to a material. Testers often use the detection of bacteria or ATP to determine cleanliness or sanitary properties.  UV light sources can also be useful. 
   Deflection (HDT) / Softening Point       Deflection, heat distortion temperature (HDT), or softening point (e.g., Vicat) instruments measure the temperature that reflects the point of softening expected when a material is used in an elevated temperature application. 
   Disintegration / Dissolution       Disintegration or dissolution is the rate at which a chemical, material, drug, or pharmaceutical dissolves when put into water, another solvent or a simulated oral, digestive, or circulatory environment. 
   Processability / Plasticity (e.g., Plastometer, Extrusiometer)       Testers are used to determine processability, plasticity, and viscoelastic properties. Plasticity is the amount of permanent plastic deformation a material can withstand without cracking. 
   Flash Point / Flammability       Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the material. Flammability is a measure of how quickly a material will ignite and propagate combustion. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) have standards for the fire testing of materials. The UL 94 standard for flammability testing describes 12 flame classifications based on small-scale flame tests. UL 94 determines a material’s tendency to either propagate or extinguish a flame on an ignited and burning sample. UL 746A determine a material’s resistance to ignition. 
   Flowability / Workability       Flowability provides an indication of the flow characteristics of a powder, granular material, slurry, or liquid. Powder flowability is determine through Carr index, basic flow index (BFI), Hausner ratio, angle of repose, internal friction, degree of floodability and other specialized or proprietary flow tests. Floodability is the degree to which a powder self-aerates and flows like a liquid. Slump tests determine the flowability or workability of a concrete, mortar or cement based material. 
   Gelation       Gelation refers to the amount of time a sample needs to form a gel. In a resin cure, gelation occurs when resin viscosity has increased to a point such that it barely moves when probed with a sharp instrument. 
   Melt Flow Index (MFI, MFR, MVR)       Melt flow index (MFI) testers determine the melt flow rate (MFR) or melt volume rate (MVR) of a sample material at a specific temperature (190°C). Sample materials can include plastics, thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or rubber, polymers, waxes, and moldable foods (chocolate, candy, etc.). Melt flow index (MFI) is the output flow rate in grams that occurs in a 10-minute period through a standard die of 2.0955 mm diameter and 8.000 mm in length while a fixed pressure is applied to a 190°C melt via a piston.   Blow molding and extrusion processes tend to use resins with lower MFI values. Injection molding typically uses higher MFI polymers. Specialized melt flow index test equipment products are available. Some rheometers are useful for MFI determination. Extrusiometers or instrumented laboratory extruders are also used to measure the MFI, MVR, MFR extrudability or extrusion characteristics of plastic, rubber, elastomer or polymer materials.   
   Permeability - Gas / Vapor       Gas or vapor permeability is a measurement of a sample’s ability to transmit gases or vapors. The oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the water vapor transmission rate (WVTr) are important measurements in determining the ability of a packaging film or material to maintain freshness. 
   Permeability - Liquid       Liquid permeability measures a sample's ability to transmit liquids. 
   Pour Point       Pour point is the lowest temperature at which an undisturbed sample can be poured from a container. Often, is necessary to know how cold a particular sample can become before it loses its fluid characteristics. If a sample is chilled sufficiently, it eventually reaches a temperature at which it will no longer flow under the influence of gravity. For many applications, a sample that does not flow of its own accord at low temperatures will not provide satisfactory properties such as lubrication. 
   Stability / Stability Index       Testers determine the stability or stability index of a material based on some property. 
   Texture Analysis       Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a food is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. Texture analysis is an integral part of the production chain, generating benefits throughout, from research and development to process optimization and production. Key fundamental characteristics, which affect finished product texture quality are identified throughout the initial stages of development. From there they may be selected for at-line process control measurements. Common characteristics analyzed include hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, adhesiveness, and viscosity.  Secondary characteristics include brittleness, chewiness, and gumminess.  
   Wear / Abrasion       Ferrographs are used to analyze wear debris or particles in oils, lubricants, and greases. The shape, size, concentration, count, and composition can indicate a great deal about lubricant and machine condition. Wear analysis can also be performed on wear surfaces. 
   Wettability / Contact Angle       Contact or wetting angles are a measure of wettability. Contact angles are determined by the relative surface and surface tension or energies of the materials in contact. The equation that governs wetting angle (θ) is SA (solid-air) - SA (Liquid-solid) = SA (liquid-air)cos(θ) . SA (liquid-solid) is the surface energy of the liquid-solid interface or interfacial energy. SA (liquid-air) is the surface energy of the liquid-air interface or interfacial energy. SA (solid-air) is the surface energy of the solid-air interface or interfacial energy.  
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary configurations.  
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Display & Special Features
   Display & Special Features       
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   Analog Meter       Data is displayed with an analog meter or simple visual indicator. 
   Computer Interface / Networkable       The instrument can be connected to a network or personal computer for the transfer of data or test control. 
   Digital Readout       Device uses numerical or application-specific displays. 
   SPC Software / Capability       Instruments have integral or optional SPC software or analysis capability. 
   Graphic / Video Display       The data is presented in video form with a cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), or other multi-line form. 
   Handheld / Field       Handheld or portable devices are used in field applications to test soil, construction materials, and pavement.  
   Laboratory / Batch       Devices are benchtop, table-based, or floor-mounted gages or instruments where a part is both manually loaded and measured. The tester, instrument, or test equipment is a larger, free-standing or floor-mounted unit. 
   Process Line Mounted (Continuous)       Sensors, instruments or monitors are mounted within or on a process line, piece of equipment, or machine tool in a production environment to allow continuous monitoring and control of specific materials or media properties. 
   Other       Other unlisted display option types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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