Technical Articles

Supplier:

ATI Wah Chang


ATI Wah Chang has published these technical articles:

(Metals and Alloys)
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Designers of equipment incorporating load-bearing parts made of zirconium should account for its comparatively low facture-toughness. The paper summarizes the current knowledge of zirconium... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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During the scale-up of a new active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), materials of construction issues were of high importance due to the extremely aggressive nature of the reaction mixture and the... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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In 1999 the ASTM B10 committee Task Force on Clad Metal completed development and approvals of a specification covering Reactive and Refractory Metal Clad Plate. The task force effort included... (View Full Article)
(Heating and Cooling Equipment)
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A Gulf Coast manufacturing unit has three heat exchangers in its reaction overhead off-gas system. All the heat exchangers are once-through condensers with carbon steel shells, zirconium tubes and... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The use of titanium integral finned tube in shell and tube heat exchanger design contributes greatly to the development of compact designs. The increase in shellside heat transfer surface area,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Allegheny Ludlum produces a wide ranger of corrosion-resistant rolled products from nickel and titanium alloys and standard and proprietary stainless steels. Choice of the optimum material for a given... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Laboratory corrosion testing was utilized to directly compare the reducing acid crevice, and anodic pitting corrosion and hydrogen absorption resistance of six commercial Pd- and Ru-modified C.P.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The tube-to-tubesheet joint is considered to be one of the most important and critical portions of tubular type heat exchangers. When reactive metal tubes, such as zirconium and titanium, are used in... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Zirconium clad plates provide the excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium combined with the high mechanical properties and easy fabrication of steel base metal. Explosion cladding (also, known as... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Silicon addition to zirconium may improve its corrosion resistance. Silicon precipitates as ZR3Si at concentrations above 10 ppm and to be effective, the silicon should be in solution. Zirconium... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The synergistic effect between corrosion and wear was determined for zirconium 702 in an aqueous medium. Zirconium 702 with a pickled surface treatment and zirconium 702 with an air oxidized surface... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The design and procurement of zirconium pressure vessels and heat exchangers has become commonplace recently and many fabricators worldwide are capable of supplying them. Pressure vessels that require... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Tin may be a major impurity in UNS R 60702 or Zr 702. The presence of tin in Zr 702 results from the addition of Zircaloy recycle in the production process. This practice may yield a few benefits,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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It is often advantageous to use U-bend tubes in industrial heat exchangers, but the integrity of the bends is a primary concern, especially with materials sensitive to fabrication.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Ti and TiPd 0,2, as well as Zr 702 are metals with excellent corrosion resistance in many aggressive media handled in the chemical process industry, including strongly oxidizing media, mineral and... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The paper gives an overview of how the material selection process must capture the requirements of all aspects of the design, manufacture, operation and maintenance activities to arrive at an... (View Full Article)
(Heating and Cooling Equipment)
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Integrally clad materials are used for fabricating equipment of zirconium, titanium and other reactive metals economically, robustly, and durably. Bonding zirconium and titanium onto lower cost,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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This paper reviews current work performed by OWC to better characterize significant factors influencing impact toughness of zirconium 702, as determined by Charpy impact testing. In Part I, an... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Flowforming in an advanced, cold forming process for manufacturing dimensionally precise, axially symmetrical, hollow components. The final shapes can be cylindrical, conical, ogival and contoured.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The chemical process industries are facing an increasing squeeze between labor and raw materials costs and product prices that are rising less rapidly. As a result, productivity increases are... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Several case histories in sulfuric acid are used to illustrate the potential for zirconium to increase manufacturing efficiency by reducing operating and maintenance costs in the petrochemical... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Titanium is the material of choice for corrosion control in many hydrometallurgy processes. Titanium provides superior corrosion protection in autoclaves and support vessels for pressure acid leaching... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Zirconium alloys R60702 and R60705 have been used for many years in the chemical process industry to solve corrosion problems. Although the alloys have been ASME Code approved for many years and also... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The pumps and valves used in the chemical process industry must withstand highly corrosive media, often at high temperatures and pressures. Alloys of titanium and zirconium are needed for many... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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There have been a few specific services where random, unexplained, localized corrosion of cast zirconium equipment has occurred. This localized attack is more than can be explained by traditional... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Two ruthenium-enhanced titanium alloys, ASTM Grades 26 and 27 containing nominally 0.10-0.12 wt.% Ru, are significantly less expensive than Ti-Pd alloys in mill product forms, because of the lower,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Life Cycle Costing of equipment has increase the usage of zirconium over other lower priced alloys. The decision to select zirconium as a material of choice in a large capital project requires careful... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Welded titanium structures are exposed to severe conditions in corrosive environments. Titanium alloys are sensitive to grain growth and atmospheric contamination during welding. Gas tungsten arc... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The highly acid, oxidizing conditions in parts of nitric acid plants severely tax conventional materials such as high-purity aluminum and high-silicon stainless steel. Long-term field-testing of these... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Rupture disks have been used for many years to protect pressure vessels from being over pressured. In addition to being used alone, the ASME Code also allows them to be used at the inlets of pressure... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Tantalum (Ta) shows excellent corrosion resistant. However, tantalum is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This paper presents a failure analysis of tanalum thermometer sheath-tube used in... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Severe pitting corrosion is zirconium (UNS No. R60702) reboiler tubes was experienced in hot dilute sulfuric acid. The zirconium 702 tubes had operated with no corrosion for several years. In an... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Portable hardness testing technology was developed in this project and was based on an oxygen equivalent (OE) database for CP titanium weld metals. The database was created by testing the properties... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The use of reactive metals in chemical process environments is increasing because of increased awareness that they withstand corrosion attack in aggressive organic and inorganic chemicals.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The family of elements, known as the reactive metals, consist of Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium (Group IV B), Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum (Group V B). All but Vanadium exhibit a tenaciously adherent,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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High temperature and high pressure processes continue to gain acceptance in the hydrometallurgical processing of more and more minerals. High pressure acid leaching and pressure oxidation have proved... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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This paper presents the process variables, then the initial work of the NOBLECLAD - ENIT program on the titanium-steel bond. Analysis of samples of titanium-steel in both the as-clad condition and... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Due to its superior corrosion resistance, zirconium is the material of choice for many aggressive chemical processes. Zirconium is used in pressure vessels, heat exchangers, columns, piping, etc.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The procedure for determining failure cause is described, starting with the history of the failed material, documentation of the failure circumstances and emphasis on proper methods for acquisition,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Tantalum, niobium and zirconium are known as refactory metals because their melting points are greater than that of platinum, 1750 C. The high melting point combined with excellent corrosion... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Tantlum is a metal little known to most of the metallurgical community. Its properties are often misunderstood and misrepresented. A general description of the properties of tantalum and its alloy NRC... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The process to extract zirconium from zircon sand requires use of many corrosive chemicals. A walk through the extraction process explains the chemicals involved. At each step, corrosion problems are... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The mechanical properties of the unalloyed titanium grades are determined by the content of interstitial elements, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, and iron. This paper reviews the chemistry of AWS... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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The competitive global environment provides a key economic driver to use reactive metals in corrosive conditions. Economics are dictated by POE, unit costs, maintenance cost, reliability, and life... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Titanium applications in the chemical industry (CPI) are described from its introduction to its present diverse usage. Its performance, properties and life-cycle costs are compared with competitive... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Useful grain refinement can be obtained when an alloy is electromagnetically vibrated during solidification under favourable conditions, primarily involving the amplitude of the oscillating pressure.... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Titanium and zirconium have been used successfully in the Chemical Process Industry for years. They can be used in a wide variety of chemical processes, both oxidizing and reducing in nature. However,... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Use of titanium and tantalum in corrosive service can yield considerable savings. To avoid costly problems, appropriate care must be taken in materials and in fabrication, and operating and... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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This paper will discuss the criteria to be considered when selecting a cladded product for equipment such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, columns and piping. The economics of SPF Sun Z-R... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Corrosion resistant alloys are frequently specified for the construction of industrial process equipment such as heat exchangers, digesters in paper mills, reactors, and condensing units as well as in... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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AL-6XN® alloy is a low carbon, high purity nitrogen bearing "super-austenitic" stainless alloy. The high strength and corrosion resistance of annealed AL-6XN alloy make it a better choice than... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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High-temperature oxidation of wastes in water solutions can improve biodegrability. The corrosive conditions used can initiate combustion of preferred corrosion-resistant materials. This paper... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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This paper describes the production of rammed graphite titanium and zirconium castings. This process is similar to the sand casting process used to cast many common iron base alloys. Issues such as... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Several case histories involving titanium heat exchangers in refinery and chemical plant services are discussed. These experiences illustrate some of the limitations of titanium in the aggressive... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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After a decision has been made to use zirconium as the material of construction for a shell and tube heat exchanger, one must take into account the process design parameters and other considerations... (View Full Article)
(Heating and Cooling Equipment)
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This paper presents a recent innovation and development of a new technology, known as Twisted Tube technology, which has been able to overcome the limitations of the conventional technology, and in... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Little has been published on the effects of hydrogen on Tantalum and Niobium materials of construction for pressure related equipment. It has been found that the presence of hydrogen, or media... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Titanium, zirconium, and nickel alloy threaded fasteners make excellent mechanical joints. Like any materials, however, they have advantages and disadvantages. There are some design, procurement, and... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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To date, several of the zirconium clad vessels are in service, some for over four years. Zirconium clad construction is approximately half the cost compared to solid zirconium units and provides... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Chloride salt solutions, such as seawater, present a challenging environment for selecting materials with acceptable corrosion resistance. When exposed to these solutions, most metals are susceptible... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Formic acid is a versatile player in the chemical industry. It is unique, in that it acts both as an aldehyde and as a carboxylic acid. It is more highly ionized and acidic than acetic acid. It is... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Hydrochloric acid is a very important industrial chemical, with numerous diverse uses throughout the chemical processing industry. It is a strong reducing acid and is employed as an intermediate... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents known, and has increasingly become an important chemical in manufacturing plants for environmental reasons. It is used as a... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Nitric acid is one of the most widely used acids in the Chemical Processing Industry. It is a key raw material in the production of ammonium nitrate for fertilizer, and is also utilized in a variety... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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Laboratory studies and case histories have established zirconium as the most corrosion resistant material of construction in many production methods involving organic media. In fact, zirconium plays a... (View Full Article)
(Metals and Alloys)
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A zirconium/titanium/carbon steel tri-clad reactor has been specified for the first time in the BP Chemicals acetic technology. The plant is under construction by BP Petronas Acetyls SDN. BHD in... (View Full Article)

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